Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World
Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018
Eleni Hasaki, Martin Bentz (Eds.)
Reconstructing Scales of Production in the Ancient Greek World: Producers, Processes, Products, People
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 8
Scholars have adopted an array of approaches, both traditional and experimental, to approximate the scale of craft production, which has always been central to the study of ancient economies. This panel examines these new methods, for estimating the workshop crew size, the workshop physical space, the time requirements for the chaîne opératoire for each product, the needs of the population for different goods, or the percentage of ancient products surviving to this day. These new approaches, some borrowed from related disciplines, should help us overcome the paucity of archaeological evidence. By employing social network analysis, individual worker’s output, architectural energetics, and production-consumption ratios, we aim to improve our understanding of the scale of craft production in the ancient Greek world, both in the Greek mainland and in the Greek colonies in Sicily. Archaeologists and ancient economists are using new approaches to study the ancient economy at a micro-level, taking into consideration several variables, such as raw material procurement, labor investment, cross-craft dependencies, apprenticeship periods, and product demand, to name a few. From Prehistoric to Classical Greece and Italy, the industries covered are mostly ceramics-centered, such as pottery and tiles, but also pavement construction and funerary monumental architecture.
Jean-Pierre Brun, Nicolas Garnier, Gloria Olcese (Eds.)
A. Making Wine in Western-Mediterranean B. Production and the Trade of Amphorae: Some New Data from Italy
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 9
The aim of this volume is to present new data and current multidisciplinary projects on viticulture in antiquity, on the production and circulation of wine, and on the containers that held the wine, involving archaeology, archaeometry, archaeobotany and molecular-archaeology.
The studies in this volume focus on Italy, and its relations to other areas (Spain, Malta), to deepen our knowledge of the transformations in the agricultural landscape. Another focus are wine production facilities, which have until now remained under-studied, such as rock cut vats.
The advancement of technical knowledge is gradually answering the old question of differentiating between wine and olive oil production facilities. We knew that the same presses were used for both products, but now, systematic floatation can turn up olive stones or grape seeds, and biochemical analyses in gas-chromatography or liquid-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry now provide very reliable results on the remains in vats.
The second part of the volume presents some new archaeological and archaeometric data related to the production and distribution of wine amphorae - coming from the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, Spain and Africa - in Italy and the western Mediterranean, the study of which was also carried out using laboratory methods.
Michael Herdick, Angelika Hunold, Holger Schaaff (Eds.)
Pre-modern Industrial Districts
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 14
The ancient quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel has been the subject of research by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (RGZM) in Mainz and Mayen since 1997. The products – primarily basalt lava millstones, tuffstone building material, and pottery – were extensively traded throughout much of Europe for many centuries.
An extensive research programme was launched to examine the wealth of evidence about the ancient stone industry in the region and its significance for the political establishment of Rome north of the Alps. The main subjects were the basalt and tuff stone industries as well as the Mayen vicus, the most important economic centre. Another subject is the pottery production, which is researched by material studies as well as by experimental archaeology. Other studies deal with the preconditions for the economic success, focussing on the infrastructure and the rural settlement conditions.
Being an industrial district of supraregional importance, the quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel turned out an excellent case study for the investigation of pre-modern industrial districts in general, providing a model for the study of ancient industries: these need to be investigated with a long-term view and with a holistic approach, taking into account economic, social and settlement aspects.
Annalisa Marzano (Ed.)
Villas, Peasant Agriculture, and the Roman Rural Economy
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 17
The Roman villa was a defining element of the Roman world and its appearance and spread, both in various regions of Roman Italy and abroad, have been linked to various historical phenomena: Rome’s territorial expansion, the establishment of colonial settlements, and the indigenous elites’ readiness to participate in forms of Roman life. While traditional historiography has seen the spread of large villas in Republican Italy as a phenomenon that displaced small and medium landowners from the land, and thus contributed to Rome’s socio-political problems, recent studies have stressed that large villas and farms were not at variance with each other. The papers gathered in this volume aim at giving a more organic evaluation of how the ‘villa economy’ and the ‘peasant economy’ operated, and to what degree, if any, the two were integrated. It does so by addressing two main questions: whether villas and small and medium farms were part of two distinctive productive and distributive systems or not; and to what extent the picture emerging from provincial territories compares with the situation in Roman Italy.
Elena H. Sánchez López (Ed.)
The Role of Water in Production Processes in Antiquity
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 21
Water is required in many production processes, both now and in the past. But water studies have traditionally focused on the analysis of water supply structures, in particular on aqueducts and monumental fountains, leaving aside most of the uses given to this precious liquid after bringing it into the urban settlements. Apart from the baths – already included in water studies decades ago – Classical Archaeologist have only recently begun to take into consideration other uses of water. Nevertheless, the uses related directly to productive activities have never been properly addressed.
Agriculture, pottery or glass production, building materials and construction techniques, are very common issues in recent research, however, the study of the different processes related to each of those activities has aroused much less interest and the role of water within these processes has been totally neglected. This volume includes four papers that are a first attempt to study water in production processes in the Roman period and in Late Antiquity.
Michael Heinzelmann, Cathalin Recko (Eds.)
Quantifying Ancient Building Economy
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 23
In recent years, the study of ancient construction has focused increasingly on putting the different aspects of the process of building into an economic framework. This entailed examining the various steps of construction and the organization of a building site in detail. It also meant that attempts were made to quantify the use of both the materials and the labour necessary for the building project, as these illustrate the scale of a building project and its impact on the overall economy.
The goal of this volume is to bring together different approaches of the study of the economy of building. With the help of methods of quantification and intensive architectural studies, the case studies of city walls, baths, temples and timber buildings in this volume not only shed light on the various constructional characteristics of these buildings, but also on a wide range of economic implications. The collection of papers ranges from Messene in the 4th century BC to Imperial Rome and are completed by practical insights from 19th century building manuals.
Verena Gassner (Ed.)
Regional exchange of ceramics – case studies and methodology
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 30
Pottery vessels and other ceramic objects constitute important sources for issues of trade and exchange in Antique societies as they are available in great quantities and as their provenance often can be determined by archaeological or archaeometric methods. Most studies on the exchange of ceramics however concentrate on aspects of long-distance trade, as differences between wares and/ or types produced in different, far distant regions can be recognized more easily. This fact, together with the psychological fact of the greater attractiveness of these items, might have lead to an exaggerated perception of the amount of goods traded via the oversea trade in the archaeological record. In contrast to this, aspects of regional exchange between neighbouring cities have not been given the same attention in the field of Mediterranean archaeology, although they might give important insights into the problems of regional connectivity and they also had greater importance during Antiquity than normally assumed. One of the reasons of this deficit can certainly be found in the difficulty of clearly and unambiguously distinguishing ceramics produced within one r egion f rom e ach other, a s t hey o ften s hare the s ame repertory of shapes or decoration styles.
This panel comprises case studies from different areas and different periods of the Mediterranean, all of which clearly demonstrate the difficulties in reconstructing networks of regional exchange, but also show their importance for the economy of ancient towns.
Elon D. Heymans, Marleen K. Termeer (Eds.)
Politics of Value: New Approaches to Early Money and the State
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 33
As one of the most enduring icons of economic life, money has been a common feature and central focus in complex societies from Antiquity to the present. It gained weight as a key feature of Mediterranean economies in the course of the first millennium BCE, mostly in the form of coinage. But money is more than just coin, and its significance is more pervasive than just to the strict sphere of “the economy”.
In the ancient Mediterranean, money and its rise to prominence have b een p redominantly a ssociated w ith t he s tate. B ut c an money only emerge under state authority? This volume questions the assumed relation between the spread of early forms of money and the state and draws attention to different ways in which money as an innovation could be anchored and socially embedded.
Eugenia Equini Schneider (Ed.)
Men, Goods and Ideas Travelling over the Sea. Cilicia at the Crossroad of Eastern Mediterranean Trade Network
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 35
Thanks to its specific geographical position, at the crossroads of the most important sea and land trading routes, in a necessary point of transition and interconnection between Syria, Cyprus and Egypt, Cilicia has always played a distinctive role within the context of cultural, social and commercial exchanges in the Mediterranean area. In particular during its Romanisation, the commercial relations with the various areas of the Empire were of fundamental importance, and particularly the relations with the Eastern Mediterranean, which were substantial, and were constantly maintained until the first Byzantine age. The subject of this panel was an assessment of the present knowledge on this region, focusing on integrated studies on production exchanges, trade and transport in the Mediterranean. Underwater research, archaeological and geophysical investigation about harbour basins, the study of production facilities, analysis of material culture and numismatic evidence have led and are still leading to an exhaustive picture of the changes and transformations involving the region and the urban centres throughout centuries as a result of evolving large-scale economic and social processes. The resulting large amount of information about the role played by the region as a production centre and a market-place has created comparative samples for other research under way in Cilicia and south-eastern Turkey.
Enrico Giorgi, Giuseppe Lepore, Anna Gamberini (Eds.)
Boundaries Archaeology: Economy, Sacred Places, Cultural Influences in the Ionian and Adriatic Areas
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 39
The territories of the Adriatic and the Ionian area were separated from each other both from a political and a cultural point of view. Because of this circumstance, they represent a suitable area for the study of commercial and cultural exchange. This meeting of cultures generated mutual influences and cultural osmosis in various ways and at different times, and was linked to different historical and geographical contexts, which nevertheless sometimes generated similar results. Recent archaeological research allows us to assume that sanctuaries and sacred places are suitable contexts in which these phenomena can be analysed, as they were places in which large amounts of people gathered and centres of cultural mediation that were involved in economic and political interests.
The contributions collected in this book consider these issues from different points of view and include studies on historiography, material culture and numismatics. The case studies of the northern Adriatic area are located on the western shore, and in particular in the area of the ager Gallicus and of Picenum, with a particular focus on the period that precedes and witnesses the structuring of the Roman domination of this territory (3rd / 2nd century BC). The case studies in the southern Adriatic and Ionian area focus on Apulia and the area of Illyria and Epirus between the Archaic era and the beginning of the Roman age (4thto 1st century BC).
Giuseppe Lepore, Luigi Maria Caliò (Eds.)
Agrigento: Archaeology of an Ancient City. Urban Form, Sacred and Civil Spaces, Productions, Territory
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 41
The archaeological research in Agrigento has undergone a new and important impulse thanks to a new collaboration between the Archaeological Park "Valley of the Temples" and many Italian and European universities, who have worked side by side on shared projects and excavations. This volume aims to be a synthesis of the most recent research carried out in the various sectors of the ancient city, but also a testimony of a correct way of proceeding, in which different universities and management, protection and research structures actively collaborate in the search for a common vision of such an important city of Antiquity as Agrigento, which, until a few years ago was isolated and little known in the research community, except for the famous Hill of the Temples. Agrigento now displays an unprecedented richness in archaeological research: the various aspects of the social, architectural and economic life of the ancient city now emerge with greater clarity, as well as the urban spaces, its sanctuaries, housing estates, production sites, but also the agricultural management of the chora and the extra-urban territory in an overall vision of the city which, although still partly incomplete, produces one of the few complex syntheses of the life of a city in ancient Sicily.
Miko Flohr, Nicolas Monteix (Eds.)
Shops, Workshops and Urban Economic History in the Roman World
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 42
The material remains of Roman urban shops and workshops long played a marginal role in classical archaeology, but in recent years, they have enjoyed a marked increase of scholarly attention. Influenced by debates about the nature of ancient urban economies, scholars began to study the archaeological evidence for urban retail and manufacturing with an unprecedented vigour from the late 1990s onwards.
Since the turn of the millennium, scholars have increasingly begun to study shop- and workshop design in relation to profit-oriented investment strategies, and to explore the economic history of urban commercial landscapes. This volume discusses the ways in which the study of urban shops and workshops has challenged our conceptualization of urban economic history in the Roman world, and it explores possible avenues to further deepen our understanding of the changing nature of Roman urban commerce, and to bridge spatial and chronological distances between local sets of evidence.
Rinse Willet (Ed.)
The Economics of Urbanism in the Roman East
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 43
This volume discusses the geography of cities of the Eastern Mediterranean that existed under the Roman Empire. Roman urbanism has a long historiography, however, many previous studies saw the ancient town as an isolated historical phenomenon, or at best as an index of the spread of Hellenism or Romanitas. This volume attempts to take a step further and place the town in its socio-economic context, while also presenting the most up-to-date statistics for the urban phenomenon in the Roman East. Six contributions all deal with issues related to the spatial patterns observed in the distribution of cities in the eastern half of the Empire. One contribution, by way of comparison, deals with Roman urbanism of the Iberian Peninsula. Starting off with an overview of the Eastern Mediterranean as a whole, each contribution zooms in on a specific region in order to investigate the factors that shaped the pattern of urban settlement and the variation of city size on both (supra)regional and local scales. These factors are wide-ranging, from climatological variation, possibilities of connectivity through the road-network and sea-lanes, historical path-dependency, and agricultural potential to specific policies of Roman imperialism.
Achim Lichtenberger, Oren Tal, Zeev Weiss (Eds.)
Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 44
While already for several decades, survey archaeology and the investigationof city – hinterland relations have been in the focus of Mediterranean archaeology, the systematic implementation of this method in the southern Levant, is not commonly practiced. Only a few cities in this region were investigated by systematic intensive or extensive field surveys. This volume is dedicated to urban infrastructure and it aims at exploring the relationships between cities and their urban peripheries and hinterlands. It focusses on some southern Levantine major and secondary administrative centers of Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia under Roman and Byzantine rule (1st to 7th century CE). While investigating the historical geography of the southern Levant has a long tradition, today research questions have changed, and in many cases the study of micro-regions with their hinterlands are the focus of field projects. Such studies can only be undertaken in a systematic way, using multi-disciplinary approaches and high-resolution analyses looking at all kinds of zones of urban settlements and connections within the site and its periphery and hinterland. The contributions of this volume present a first attempt to look at urban settlements in the southern Levant from a comparative perspective.
Javier Andreu Pintado (Ed.)
From "splendidissima ciuitas" to "oppidum labens": Financial Problems and Material Ruin in Roman Provincial Cities at the End of the High-Empire. The Hispanic Provinces
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 45
Ancient Roman writers used to think of the Classical city as a durable, even eternal, structure and to recognize and underline its symbolic value as a reflection of the maiestas Imperii Romani and an image of the Romanization itself. On the other hand, different sources, from Pliny the Younger to the Historia Augusta, in addition to some inscriptions relate the weaknesses and problems of the local governments in maintaining the urban way of life and in supporting the financial system of those centres, in particular after the second half of the 2nd century AD, right before the much-discussed ‘crisis of the 3rd century’. This phenomenon turned many former splendidissimae ciuitates that possessed all the facilities and equipment of a Classical Roman city into oppida labentia, cities in decline and in process of abandonment. This exciting process is only visible through the appropriate analysis of the archaeological evidence. This book deals with some of the juridical, historical, institutional and political factors and facts, which can contribute to enlighten us about the elements of this decline of some of the small towns in the Roman West, in particular some paradigmatic evidence and case studies from Roman Spain.
Marion Brüggler, Julia Obladen-Kauder, Harry van Enckevort (Eds.)
Town-Country Relations in the Northern Parts of Germania inferior from an Economic Perspective
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 46
The province Germania inferior is an interesting candidate for investigating town-country relations. While its southern part borders on the distribution area of oppida, its northern parts had no Iron Age tradition of large settlement agglomerations. Nonetheless, in the Roman period towns were founded here: the Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten) and the municipia Ulpia Noviomagus (Nijmegen) and Forum Hadriani/Municipium Aelium Cananefatium (Voorburg). An important economic agent of the time was the Roman army with its numerous forts along the Lower German Limes. These massive and new agglomerations of persons that were not primarily involved in food production must have posed a challenge to the supply of provisions – in food as well as other commodities.
This panel summarises and compares the town-country relationships in two civitates: the civitas Cugernorum with its capital Colonia Ulpia Traiana and the civitas Batavorum with its capital Municipium Ulpia Noviomagus. What supply strategies for the towns can be discerned? In what way did the primary centres influence the countryside? Are there differences between the civitates? Do they differ from those in the southern parts of Germania inferior? And if so, what are the reasons for it? Another focus are methodological questions, such as : with the data that we have, can we answer these questions? And if that is not the case, what other methods may be applied to gain a deeper insight into this aspect of Roman economy?
Eva Mol, Lisa Lodwick (Eds.)
AIAC-Round Table Discussion. Diversity in the Past, Diversity in the Present? Issues of Gender, Whiteness, and Class in ‘Classical’ Archaeology
Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 52
This small volume within the AIAC-proceedings is the result of a panel discussion on diversity in Classical Archaeology, and can be read as a call and pamphlet for more inclusivity and social justice in the field. In light of the dismay of many concerning the initial all-male keynote panel at AIAC2018, the panel was aimed at discussing broader issues concerning diversity and intersectionality in Greco-Roman archaeology. As archaeologists, we have made it one of our principal tasks to bring to the fore ‘the people without history’ and show a more diverse image of the Greek and Roman past. Then why is this diversity not reflected in the discipline itself? The all-male panel was symptomatic of more fundamental problems that the discipline suffers from, both in terms of gender and its inseparably related issues of whiteness, class, and the ‘Classical’. The AIAC-panel proved to be a constructive and empowering meeting ground, where vital matters of inequality and injustice were discussed, as well as the discipline’s capability of moving towards a more self-reflexive and socially engaged future. The contributions in this volume count as a reflection of this fruitful and ongoing debate, which will hopefully lead to more awareness as well as more dialogue.