Alfons Zettler, Thomas Zotz (Eds.)

Die Burgen im mittelalterlichen Breisgau
I. Nördlicher Teil. Halbband A-K

Archäologie und Geschichte – Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Vol. 14

Of the once numerous medieval castles in the Markgräflerland and in the Breisgau, only a few survived the eventful and warlike centuries of the early modern period on the Upper Rhine. A small number of more or less well-preserved ruins are contrasted by a considerable number of vanished castles, of which only written records and field names still bear witness. The Castle Book, which was compiled in the Department of Regional History at the Historical Seminar of the University of Freiburg i. Br., contains a richly illustrated catalog of all the castles and castle sites of the Breisgau region in its medieval extension and thus offers for the first time a complete inventory of the high and late medieval castle landscape there. It will be published in four volumes, the first two parts covering the northern Breisgau, two more are planned for the southern Breisgau.

Tommaso Spinelli

The Diachronic Frequency of Latin Words: A Computational Dictionary
(A/AB–AZYMVS)

Digital Classics Books, Vol. 6.1

The Diachronic Frequency of Latin Words is an innovative resource that gives statistical information about the chronological development of the use of Latin words throughout the  history of the language, from the fourth century BCE to the early sixth century CE. Based on the computational analysis of the works of 309 Latin authors, fragmentary and anonymous texts, and over 520,000 epigraphs, this computational dictionary helps scholars to explore the usage of Latin words across different time periods and linguistic registers, offering statistical insights to support philological, linguistic, and literary analysis.

Béla Miklós Szőke

Die Karolingerzeit in Pannonien

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 145

This volume takes a detailed look at a period of the Carpathian Basin that has so far not been known at all, or only scarcely known at all: the eastern expansion of the Carolingian Empire - those scarcely 100 years that lie between the fall of the Avar Khaganate and the emergence of the Hungarian principality.
Pannonia, the new eastern province of the Carolingian Empire, comprised most of Transdanubia and the Sava-Drava interfluve, where smaller counties were established from the middle of the 9th century. The best known of these was the county in Lower Pannonia with its centre Mosaburg, which Priwina and his son Chezil developed into Zalavár-Vársziget (Castle Island) from the 840s. In Lower Pannonia, which belonged to the missionary district of the Salzburg archbishopric, up to 30 churches were built between 840 and 870, five of which are already considered archaeologically identified today. Constantine (Cyril) and his brother, Methodius, who was appointed Archbishop of Pannonia, were briefly active in Mosaburg. At the end of the 880s, a royal palace of Arnolf of Carinthia, the East Frankish king, stood here. He left Mosaburg to Duke Braslav in 896, who surrounded the settlement with a strong rampart construction.
Thanks to the excavations that have continued for over 70 years, we now have a reliable picture of the history of the settlement, the architectural and artistic monuments, the social hierarchy, the ethnic composition and the cultural connections of the Mosaburg county.

Raimon Graells, Alberto J. Lorrio and Fernando Quesada

Cascos hispano-calcídicos
Símbolo de las elites guerreras celtibéricas

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 46

The Hispano- Chalcidian helmet is a fully Hispanic type, datable to between the 4th and 2nd century BC and with a mainly Celtiberian concentration. However, this type has recently been identified following the looting and sale of a number of specimens, probably from Aranda de Moncayo. The name is explained by its shape, which is reminiscent of Chalcidian helmets and their Italic derivatives, but which takes important morpho-technological details from local Celtiberian production.
Although there is considerable variability among the 32 specimens identified so far, we can consider this to be the result of individualized production. But apart from these variations, the Hispano- Chalcidian group has an easily recognizable predetermined design: a shell with openings for the ears, long muzzle-guard, articulated cheeks (the rim of these pieces is reinforced by riveting a pseudo-hemispherical ribbon), the attachment of ribbons on the front and the systematic application of a complex decorative structure formed by feathers inserted in lateral appliqués and by the vertical lophos, supported between the fork of the cylindrical appendage which is documented to be fixed by three rivets on the upper part of the shell and the rings on the front and dorsal part of the shell.
The study presented here analyses the morphological and decorative characteristics in order to approach their production and the meaning of the weapons themselves: protective elements and, at the same time, vehicles with which to express different messages of power, military rank or influences acquired during the course of mercenary activity in southern Italy.

Markus Scholz

Grabbauten in den nördlichen Grenzprovinzen des Römischen Reiches zwischen Britannien und dem Schwarzen Meer, 1.-3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 103.2

Burial structures served not only to commemorate a person, but also to represent the family. The adoption or transformation of Roman status symbols by indigenous people in the provinces is therefore a measure of romanisation. The adaptation of Mediterranean forms can mean a break with indigenous traditions or - on the contrary - in certain selections be an instrument to communicate traditional values and patterns in a contemporary presentational framework.
The study shows where the models came from, which social groups conveyed them and which took them up and even developed them further. Monument topography and architectural types are taken into account as well as the media of epitaphs and sculpture. The differences between the Rhine and Danube provinces are revealing.

Markus Scholz

Grabbauten in den nördlichen Grenzprovinzen des Römischen Reiches zwischen Britannien und dem Schwarzen Meer, 1.-3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 103.1

Burial structures served not only to commemorate a person, but also to represent the family. The adoption or transformation of Roman status symbols by indigenous people in the provinces is therefore a measure of romanisation. The adaptation of Mediterranean forms can mean a break with indigenous traditions or - on the contrary - in certain selections be an instrument to communicate traditional values and patterns in a contemporary presentational framework.
The study shows where the models came from, which social groups conveyed them and which took them up and even developed them further. Monument topography and architectural types are taken into account as well as the media of epitaphs and sculpture. The differences between the Rhine and Danube provinces are revealing.

Thomas Schmidts, Martina Seifert (Eds.)

New Approaches to Seaborne Commerce in the Roman Empire
Panel 5.17

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 24

Seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire is characterised by a remarkable efficiency for the pre-modern world. From Egypt to Britain, trade connections can be proven on the basis of archaeological finds. The range of these activities includes the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and parts of the north-eastern Atlantic. Important reference points for the assessment of Roman merchant shipping are ports, ships and cargo remains. Due to the large number of known shipwrecks and ports, archaeology in particular can contribute to a better understanding of maritime trade.
The contributions address various aspects of the "seaborne commerce" with a broad methodological spectrum.  In addition to wreck finds, the relevance of inscriptions on amphorae and other cargo remains are considered as well as the formation of networks, the reconstruction of ship routes and the performance of ancient watercraft based on experiments.

Eurydice Kefalidou (Ed.)

The Riverlands of Aegean Thrace: Production, Consumption and Exploitation of the Natural and Cultural Landscapes | River Valleys and Regional Economies
Panel 2.4 | Panel 2.7

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 6

Rivers have always been vital supports for economies. They provided water for people and animals, irrigated the land, facilitated communication and trade through small vessels or rafts, aided industrial activities, formed rich hunting grounds for fishermen and hunters, and offered raw materials such as sand, gravel and placer deposits - including even gold. At the same time, the deltas and marshlands of rivers, created an inhospitable environment unsuitable for habitation, especially in periods of flood. Furthermore, rivers connected the sea and the littoral zone with the hinterland, and thus allowed the interaction between the populations which inhabited these areas, often locals and colonists/merchants. 
The papers address topics such as the reconfiguration of ancient river routes, the settlement and exploitation patterns that were formed around them, the boundaries of the chora of various cities, towns, villages and farmsteads, and the communication or the tensions between different groups that moved or expanded beyond their original habitation zone due to environmental and/or economic reasons.
Panels 2.4 and 2.7 explore multiple facets of some Central and Eastern Mediterranean riverlands. Panel 2.4 investigates Aegean Thrace, i.e. the Northeastern part of Greece and the European part of Turkey. Panel 2.7 looks at three river valleys in two different areas: Athens and Attica with the Ilissos River; and Northeastern Italy with the rivers that flow in the areas of Verona and Parma.

Salvatore De Vincenzo (Ed.)

Trade in Ancient Sardinia
Panel 5.4

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 29

The themes of this panel are the modes of trade in ancient Sardinia. What are the trade routes touching ancient Sardinia? Which areas and cities in Sardinia were most involved in these exchanges? Which products were exchanged and how was the island's production affected by trade? Which patterns are observable in importing and imitating foreign goods, which were carried to the island by traders? How do these aspects change over time, from Archaic times to Late Antiquity?
This analysis on ancient trade in Sardinia will be carried out predominantly based on pottery contexts. But of course, other trade goods like iron ore, of which Sardinia possessed great amounts, thereby shaping trade routes from the first millennium BC onwards, will be taken into account as well. The chronological phases in question range from Archaic times to Late Antiquity, comprising transactions of indigenous people, Carthaginians, and Greeks, with particular regard to the trade in the Roman era.

Mehmet Işikli (Ed.)

The Economic Structure of Eastern Anatolian Highland from Urartian Period to the End of Late Antiquity
Panel 2.6

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 7

      The Eastern Anatolian Highlands was one of the prominent sub-regions of the ancient Near East due to its very specific location. This region, which has rugged geographical features and harsh climate conditions, is situated between Northern Mesopotamia, the Southern Caucasus, Northwestern Iran and Central Anatolia, each of which were important cultural regions of the Near East. The Eastern Anatolian Highlands have played an important role in the economic networks and cultural relationships developed between the southern and northern regions through the ages. Despite its difficult geography and unfavourable climate conditions, the region hosted many cultures and societies through time on account of its strategic location and richness in natural resources and raw materials. The archaeological evidence shows that the initial periods of centralization and state formation in the region began with Urartu and continued through time. The most important factor in this regard is the fact that the region effectively functioned as a transit point on account of its strategic geographic position. Thereafter, the economic and political structures in this mountainous zone of the Near East are more easily observed. The economic structures of this marginal zone of the ancient Near East will be analysed from the Urartian period to the end of Late Antiquity in this session.

Christine Strube

As an Archaeologist in Syria / Als Archäologin in Syrien
Experiences and Events. 1971–1980 and 1997–2007 / Erfahrungen und Ereignisse. 1971–1980 und 1997–2007

The unusually well–preserved buildings of the ancient settlements in the North Syrian Limestone Massif were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2011. This inclusion could not prevent the destruction in numerous places after 2011. Hope remains that the rich cultural landscape can be conveyed in the future through the restauration and documentation of what is still preserved and its intensive connection with older documentations.

Raimon Graells, Alberto J. Lorrio, Pablo Camacho (Eds.)

La colección de objetos proto­históricos de la Península Ibérica
1: Broches de cinturón, placas y fíbulas

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 49.1

The collection of materials from the Iberian Peninsula held at the RGZM consists of around 200 objects, divided into two groups with particular characteristics and problems: clothing ornaments and weapons.
This first volume presents objects related to clothing and/or personal adornment that correspond to the first acquisitions of Hispanic pieces made by the RGZM at the beginning of the 20th century.
The materials are necessarily divided by categories and types, as in a traditional catalogue, but the concern for methodological changes and the renewal of explanatory paradigms in the study of Hispanic protohistory has forced the authors to take certain precautions that make this catalogue an experiment. The aim has been to compensate for the lack of contexts with an intensive study and discussion of the parallels of each piece, turning each chapter into brief monographic studies. This approach makes it possible to characterise the area of origin and chronology of each specimen in the collection. It is a demanding work that attempts to go beyond the main function of the catalogue (that of compiling pieces from the antiquities market) and enters into the arduous work of scientific and patrimonial recovery, presenting the data for discussion.
This project to study the Iberian collection of the RGZM began in Mainz in 2012 on the initiative of the institution's management, as a contribution to the comprehensive study and dissemination of its archaeological collection. The success of the publication of this first part is the result of the coordination carried out by the authors (researchers from the RGZM and the University of Alicante) and the collaboration of specialists from different Spanish institutions.

Anna-Katharina Rieger, Johanna Stöger (Eds.)

Cities, Resources and Religion – Economic Implications of Religion in Graeco-Roman Urban Environments
Panel 7.7

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 40

City and religion as subjects of archaeological research in the Mediterranean are often limited to sacred buildings within the spatial and social fabric of the city. However, specific urban factors such as the concentration of economic potential, control of financial resources, but also heterogeneous populations, marginalization, and power imbalances impact religious practices and their reflections in material culture.
The contributions in this volume discuss how economic characteristics of urbanity are reflected in institutional, medial, and performative expressions of religion(s) in cities of Italy and Asia Minor. These interactions are not only of interest for Greco-Roman antiquity, but are relevant in our modern world of globalized markets: With the concentration of economic power the potential for tensions and religious conflicts increases as rapidly as cities grow.

Michael J. Curtis (Ed.)

Economy and the Maritime Cultural Landscape of Greece
Panel 5.3

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 28

In recent years new research and investigation along the coastlines has added to our understanding of the maritime cultures and traditions of ancient Greece. Even so, the maritime cultures, traditions and social aspects remain understudied and the traditional boundaries between terrestrial and underwater archaeology are still problematic and a challenge to researchers. Throughout time the settlements that stood beside the sea became increasingly important to local and regional economies, as they often benefitted from local, inter-island and cross-Mediterranean trade and the commercial and networking opportunities that this offered. Many of these settlements were the first point of contact for seafarers, travellers, and migrants, playing an important role in the diffusion of cultural, political, and religious ideologies.
The papers in this volume take us on a journey in time from an Early Bronze Age settlement on Paros to the Closed Harbours of Archaic and Classical Greece, and on to life in Hellenistic and Roman Crete.  Whilst being preliminary perspectives, the contributions in this volume demonstrate the broad variance in subject material and offer an interesting insight into the world of maritime Greece.

Marco Giglio, Luana Toniolo (Eds.)

The Production and Distribution Network of the Bay of Naples: from a Regional to a Mediterranean Perspective
Panel 5.8

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 31

Recent excavations on both production and consumption sites in Campania and international conferences on Roman pottery have given new impulses to the research on material culture and the regional and international pottery trade systems.
This volume analyses the circulation of pottery produced in the Bay of Naples between the late Republican and the early Imperial period from a double perspective: on one side the networks that transported pottery from the Bay to various points along the Mediterranean littoral; and on the other side the foods coming to Naples from various points in the Mediterranean.
The excavation contexts of Piazza Municipio in Naples, Puteoli and Herculaneum provide new relevant datasets both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view. This evidence highlights the strong relations of this area with the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in fine wares and transport containers - from the 2nd century BC Rhodian wine amphorai to 1st century AD Cretan products.
The area of the Magdalensberg imported Campanian Internal Red Slip ware as early as the late Republican period, and in especially high amounts in the Augustan age, when Campanian cooking wares are also attested in Aquileia, in northern Italy, the hotspot for the distribution of these vessels to the provinces of Northern Europe.

Holger Baitinger

Waffenweihungen in griechischen Heiligtümern

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 94

During excavations in important Greek sanctuaries such as Olympia or Delphi, large quantities of weapons and pieces of armour from the 8th to 4th century BC were found. They are considered to be pieces of booty that Greek city states donated to the gods after victorious battles.

In this volume, the custom of dedicating weapons in the Greek world between Sicily and Cyprus is summarised. More than 130 sanctuaries with weapon finds form the basis of the analysis, which also includes written and epigraphic sources. This makes the volume a comprehensive compendium of an important votive custom in ancient Greece.

Martin Guggisberg, Matthias Grawehr (Eds.)

Economy and Cultural Contact in the Mediterranean Iron Age
Panel 5.9

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 32

The economy has always been a driving force for cultural contact. Analyzing the economic connections within the Ancient World can provide a promising basis for studying intercultural connections. The Iron Age is a period of increasing inter-connectivity between different 'cultures' in the Mediterranean and it offers the fascinating possibility of studying an emerging economic and cultural system. Where did the new routes pass through that the people moved and shifted commodities along? How did the emerging demand on foreign markets influence production patterns and social structure within the local communities? How did local customs react to foreign commodities and how did such imports shape local culture? This volume is a collection of papers that focus on the 8th–6th century BC. Long object biographies are meticulously reconstructed and analyzed through up-to-date methodology to provide answers on production modes, trade routes, and consumption. Debating resources, commodities, and the reception of foreign products, the volume offers new details and insights to further our understanding of the role played by the economy in cultural contacts.

Mahand Vogt

Spangenhelme
Baldenheim und verwandte Typen

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 39

The small group of early medieval helmets has been the subject of lively interest in archaeological research for decades. Especially the partially gilded and richly decorated Spangenhelme (segmented helmets) of the Baldenheim type have been discussed again and again, as they were mostly found north of the Alps in richly equipped warrior graves of the 5th and 6th centuries.

Dimitris Paleothodoros (Ed.)

Greek and Etruscan Vases: Shapes and Markets
Panel 5.15

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 34

The eight essays published in this volume address topics relating to the production, consumption and trade of painted pottery in the Ancient Mediterranean World, during the Archaic and Classical periods, with special emphasis on the Italian Peninsula, Greece and the Balkans. Important questions on the use, function and role of vases at a broader social or religious level have also been taken into account, by focusing on the response of individual clients to both imports and local vases, or by examining specific shapes traded in both the home market and overseas. Another goal attempted, and to a large extent fulfilled, was to present fresh material, newly excavated or recently studied. Above all, our aim was to present original studies that may be considered valuable contributions in vase scholarship.

Georg Eggenstein

Das Siedlungswesen der jüngeren vorrömischen Eisenzeit und der frühen römischen Kaiserzeit im Lippebereich

Bodenaltertümer Westfalens, Vol. 40

The Roman occupation of the Westphalian region and the conflicts between Romans and Germanic tribes have always been a focus of Westphalian archaeology, however the study of Roman remains always had priority. The aim of this work is to shed light on the cultural situation in the Lippe area from a Germanic perspective. The focus is on the indigenous settlement traces that have been documented in the course of excavations of the Roman camps. The chronological span ranges from the Middle and Late Latène Period to the birth of Christ. The analyses of the individual settlements are followed by statements on the extent and density of settlement and the development of the land, as well as on the settlement history. In addition, the distribution process of Elbe-Germanic material goods and the relations between the local population and the Roman camp occupation are illuminated.
The thesis was accepted as a dissertation at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster in 1998.