Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident

Beate Böhlendorf-Arslan, Robert Schick (Eds.)

Transformations of City and Countryside in the Byzantine Period

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 22

The concept of »transformation« or simply »reshaping« contains the elements of what remains, the conservative, the kernel of what continues, as well as the elements of what changes, the innovative. In the framework of this publication of articles from a conference in 2016 on »Transformations of City and Countryside in the Byzantine Period«, we draw attention to this dichotomy and investigate the social dynamics behind changes in urban and rural life in the Byzantine period that can be detected by archaeology, history and art history.

The Byzantine Empire is an ideal subject for studying how social transformation proceeds, what triggers transformation, what factors underlie it and what the processes involved are. Who were the agents of transformation and how did they and their environment change? How flexible were the state or its citizens in handling external and internal pressures of innovation? In what manner and to what extent were the Byzantines able to preserve their identity and the internal cohesion of their empire in the course of these processes of adaptation?

Jessica Schmidt

Die spätbyzantinischen Wandmalereien des Theodor Daniel und Michael Veneris
Eine Untersuchung zu den Werken und der Vernetzung zweier kretischer Maler

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 20

For late Byzantine art history, Crete provides a unique collection of monuments. The period from 1211 to 1669, when the island was under the rule of the Venetians, allows insights into a multifaceted and complex society. Within this unique artistic and cultural landscape, the works of the late Byzantine church painter Theodor Daniel and his nephew Michael Veneris particularly stand out. The present publication devotes itself for the first time to an in-depth and wide-ranging investigation of their works. Beside the identification and attribution of their unsigned works, analyses accruing from this form key aspects. The most important step for the aims expressed is provided by the systematic attribution of the pair’s works. This and the assignment of the unsigned works are found in the first part of the publication. In the second part the interconnections of Theodor Daniel and Michael Veneris with other Cretan artists is discussed. Beside contacts with Ioannes Pagomenos, probably the most prominent Cretan church painter of the 14th century, there is a further series of indications that suggest that there existed a regular network among the artists on the island.

Falko Daim et al. (Eds.)

Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Journeys, Destinations, Experiences across Times and Cultures
Proceedings of the Conference held in Jerusalem, 5th to 7th December 2017

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 19

Jerusalem is a city holy to three world religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. From the early Byzantine period, Christian pilgrimage here and to other holy sites became a »mass phenomenon«. Thousands of Christians set out to holy sites in Palestine, Egypt and other places in order to physically experience salvation history and seek divine intervention in their lives. Numerous travel reports, pilgrim guides and other written sources highlight important aspects of pilgrimage. In addition, many well-preserved churches, monasteries, hostels and other buildings, as well as rich archaeological findings, provide us with a vivid and synthetic picture of the history of pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

Athanassios Mailis

Obscured by Walls
The Bēma Display of the Cretan Churches from Visibility to Concealment

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 18

The book researches the Bēma display of the Cretan churches in a time period spanning from the Byzantine re-conquest of the island (11th century) until the middle of the Venetian dominance (15th century). It focuses on the apparition and distribution of the Templon-barrier, the function of a certain group of frescoes as prostration images and the (partial) establishment of fresco-painted masonry screens at the Orthodox churches of the island, just before the prevalence of the »wooden wall of icons« – known as Iconostasis.

This study reveals the artistic and cultic multiplicity of arrangements, consisting of archaism and modernization, until the crystallization of the Iconostasis as the »distinctive feature of churches of the Byzantine rite«, thus a material proof of cultural identity and religious consciousness of the Orthodox populace in an area (Crete) and a period (Venetian rule) that is characterized by both osmosis and conflict.

Ludger Körntgen, Jan Kusber, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Filippo Carlà-Uhink (Eds.)

Byzanz und seine europäischen Nachbarn
Politische Interdependenzen und kulturelle Missverständnisse

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 17

On the one hand cultural misunderstandings represent a prerequisite for intercultural communications, on the other hand they can also be understood as a method or result of interculturalism and transcultural relationships. In this process there are unthinking as well as provoked and politically manipulated misunderstandings, or rather alleged misunderstandings, which disguise real political or church political conflicts of interest. In addition, there are misunderstandings in research which sometimes states a misunderstanding too quickly, where logic and context are not immediately evident. Such misunderstandings dictated the political-cultural pattern of relationships among the Byzantine Empire, the Latinised West and Slavic world, who all regarded themselves as parts of ecumenical Christianity and who stood in close political and cultural contact over many centuries. In the present book proponents of history, Byzantine studies, art history and theology apply themselves to the analysis of this phenomenon.

Martina Horn

Adam-und-Eva-Erzählungen im Bildprogramm kretischer Kirchen
Eine ikonographische und kulturhistorische Objekt- und Bildfindungsanalyse

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 16

The Western sacred art landscape of the Middle Ages presents a rich pageantry of images about the Adam and Eve story by using overlapping genres. In the large-scale paintings of the Eastern Church, on the other hand, the subject is only included in the repertoire of the churches during the post-Byzantine period. Thus, the innovative origins of Adam and Eve cycles in Venetian Crete of the 14th and 15th centuries, are even more remarkable. In five of the numerous painted Cretan churches, pictorial sequences with Adam and Eve were integrated into the iconographic concept. Beside the reconstruction of the partially destroyed frescoes, the comprehensive process of the iconographic invention will be subject of a detailed examination in this study, based on art- and cultural-historical analysis. The genesis of the wall paintings is characterized by a strong tension and a dynamic interplay between the preservation of traditional and available patterns and the inventiveness of innovative and creative elements. The broadly diversified research including Western and Eastern art traditions offers not only surprising insights into unusual pictorial formulas, but also in the varying reasons of reception in relation to the donors and their specific motivation.

Falko Daim, Neslihan Asutay-Effenberger (Eds.)

Sasanidische Spuren in der byzantinischen, kaukasischen und islamischen Kunst und Kultur
Sasanian Elements in Byzantine, Caucasian and Islamic Art and Culture

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 15

The empire of the Persian Sassanids (AD 224-651) extended over the area of modern-day Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Even the Caucasus regions lay under their political influence. Many elements of Sassanian art and culture can be found in neighbouring lands, such as the Byzantine Empire and Christian Caucasus, and, following the fall of the Sassanids, continued in those areas under Islamic control which had developed on their former territory.
In order to investigate the continuing role of the Sassanian Persians and their culture, in September 2017 an international conference was held in the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz. The papers given by academics from various disciplines are published in the present volume.

Max Ritter

Zwischen Glaube und Geld
Zur Ökonomie des byzantinischen Pilgerwesens (4.-12. Jh.)

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 14

Piety is not the sole impulse for the development of Christian pilgrimage. From a wide chronological and regional perspective, the book deals with the economic connections which influenced the essence of Byzantine pilgrimages (5th – 12th c.).
To pilgrimage is always religiously motivated and socially imbedded, yet the detailed choice of the pilgrim’s destination, the route, the gifts of thanks at the end and many other aspects were and are determined by basic economic constants and time-dependent, social-economic dynamics.
The book highlights Byzantine pilgrims’ shrines, analyses their origins but also their structure of organisation and finance, which had already been legally framed during Late Antiquity.

 

Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie (Ed.)

New Research on Late Byzantine Goldsmiths’ Works (13th-15th Centuries)
Neue Forschungen zur spätbyzantinischen Goldschmiedekunst (13.-15. Jahrhundert)

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 13

This volume comprises 13 papers from the conference »New Research on Late Byzantine Goldsmiths‘ Works (13th-15th Centuries)«, held at the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz in October 2015. The contributions primarily deal with the material culture of goldsmiths’ works, such as crosses, reliquary caskets, jewellery, enamel works, and precious stones, spanning the wide geographical area of Byzantium and many of its neighbours, from Russia via Trebizond and Serbia to Crete. Furthermore, written sources on Byzantine goldsmiths, their craft and the provenance of precious metals provide evidence for goldsmithing in Byzantium throughout its history.

Zachary Chitwood, Johannes Pahlitzsch (Eds.)

Ambassadors, Artists, Theologians
Byzantine Relations with the Near East from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 12

The contributors in the edited volume »Ambassadors, Artists, Theologians: Byzantine Relations with the Near East from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries« examine the complex dynamics which arose between the Byzantine Empire and the Near East. Moving beyond the tradition of histoire événementielle, the contributions collected here highlight the passing of artistic practices, ideas and interlocutors between Byzantium and the Islamicate world. In this way, this volume seeks to nuance and contextualize our understanding of the relationship between these two medieval cultural spheres.

Alena Alshanskaya, Andreas Gietzen, Christina Hadjiafxenti (Eds.)

Imagining Byzantium
Perceptions, Patterns, Problems

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 11

Byzantium the other. Byzantium the pompous. Byzantium the eternal. The mere existence of this empire with his rich history and otherness from western European traditions spurred the minds of scholars, noblemen, politicians and ordinary people throughout its survival and long beyond its final downfall in 1453. Neglecting its great political and cultural influence on neighbouring countries and beyond, Enlightenment writers stripped Byzantium of its original historical reality and thus created a model, which could be utilised in very different constructs, stretching from positive to absolutely negative connotations. With the rise of new nationalisms, primarily in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, and the associated politically inspired historical (re)constructions in the 19th and 20th century, the reception of Byzantium gained new facets, its perception reached into new dimensions. In this volume, we would like to shed some light on these patterns and the problems they entail, and show the different ways in which »Byzantium« was used as an argument in nation-building and in constructing new historiographical narratives, and how its legacy endured in ecclesiastical historiography.

Despoina Ariantzi, Ina Eichner (Eds.)

Für Seelenheil und Lebensglück
Das byzantinische Pilgerwesen und seine Wurzeln

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 10

The final international conference of the project "For Salvation and Happiness: Byzantine Pilgrimage and its Roots", held in December 2015, gathered scholars from the disciplines of archaeology, Byzantine studies, art history, historical sciences, religious history, epigraphy and historical geography, who addressed the phenomenon of pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire. The contributions consider the connections of Byzantine pilgrimage to pagan and Jewish pilgrimage. Above all, they present and discuss the practice of pilgrimage between "cult and commerce" in the sacral-topographical and landscape context of individual regions and locations in the Byzantine Empire from Egypt to Bulgaria and from southern Italy to the Holy Land.

Falko Daim, Christian Gastgeber, Dominik Heher, Claudia Rapp (Eds.)

Menschen, Bilder, Sprache, Dinge
Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen 2: Menschen und Worte

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 9.2

In 2018, the Roman-Germanic Central Museum Mainz presents in cooperation with the Schallaburg, the splendid Renaissance castle near Melk (Lower Austria), the exhibition »Byzantium & the West: 1000 forgotten years «.

Both Byzantium and the European West spring from the Roman Empire, but as early as Late Antiquity experience different developments.  While the Roman Empire continued to exist in the East and passed seamlessly into the Byzantine Empire of the Middle Ages, pagan took its place in the West: the kingdoms of the Goths, Vandals, Anglo-Saxons, Lombards and Franks. Although Byzantium was respected or accepted as a major power by the other European entities for at least 800 years, territorial conflicts, disputes, and cultural differences quickly emerged. In addition, communication became increasingly difficult - in the "orthodox" East, Greek was the common language, while in the "Catholic" West, Latin was the lingua franca. Differences in liturgy and questions of belief intensified the disparities or were even (religio-) politically underlined to emphasize dissimilarity. But one still continued to admire "wealthy Constantinople" and the Byzantine treasures - among them the magnificent silks, ivory reliefs, technical marvels, plentiful relics and magnificent buildings.

The change came in 1204 with the conquest and plunder of Constantinople by the Crusaders. For the already weakened Byzantine Empire, this catastrophe meant a completely new situation as an empire in exile, whose emperor and patriarch had to flee to Asia Minor. Across much of the former European Byzantine Empire, crusader states spread; Venice and Genoa, which had previously been strongly present as trade powers under special treaties, became major determinants of the western powers in the East.

On the occasion of this exhibition, two accompanying volumes with a total of 41 contributions concerning the varied and changing relationships between the Latin West and the Byzantine Empire are being published. The volumes are structured according to the media of communication: people, images, language and things. They collect contributions from renowned scientists with archaeological, art historical, philological and historical priorities. Several overviews and detailed studies are drawn from research projects of the Leibniz- ScienceCampus Mainz: Byzantium between Orient and Occident, as well as the focus on Byzantine and medieval research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna.

Falko Daim, Dominik Heher, Claudia Rapp (Eds.)

Menschen, Bilder, Sprache, Dinge
Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen 1: Bilder und Dinge

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 9.1

In 2018, the Roman-Germanic Central Museum Mainz presents in cooperation with the Schallaburg, the splendid Renaissance castle near Melk (Lower Austria), the exhibition »Byzantium & the West: 1000 forgotten years «.
Both Byzantium and the European West spring from the Roman Empire, but as early as Late Antiquity experience different developments. While the Roman Empire continued to exist in the East and passed seamlessly into the Byzantine Empire of the Middle Ages, pagan polities took its place in the West: the kingdoms of the Goths, Vandals, Anglo-Saxons, Lombards and Franks. Although Byzantium was respected or accepted as a major power by the other European entities for at least 800 years, territorial conflicts, disputes, and cultural differences quickly emerged. In addition, communication became increasingly difficult - in the "orthodox" East, Greek was the common language, while in the "Catholic" West, Latin was the lingua franca. Differences in liturgy and questions of belief intensified the disparities or were even (religio-) politically underlined to emphasize dissimilarity. But one still continued to admire "wealthy Constantinople" and the Byzantine treasures - among them the magnificent silks, ivory reliefs, technical marvels, plentiful relics and magnificent buildings.

The change came in 1204 with the conquest and plunder of Constantinople by the Crusaders. For the already weakened Byzantine Empire, this catastrophe meant a completely new situation as an empire in exile, whose emperor and patriarch had to flee to Asia Minor. Across much of the former European Byzantine Empire, crusader states spread; Venice and Genoa, which had previously been strongly present as trade powers under special treaties, became major determinants of the western powers in the East.

On the occasion of this exhibition, two accompanying volumes with a total of 41 contributions concerning the varied and changing relationships between the Latin West and the Byzantine Empire are being published. The volumes are structured according to the media of communication: people, images, language and things. They collect contributions from renowned scientists with archaeological, art historical, philological and historical priorities. Several overviews and detailed studies are drawn from research projects of the Leibniz- ScienceCampus Mainz: Byzantium between Orient and Occident, as well as the focus on Byzantine and medieval research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna.

Petra Linscheid

Spätantike und Byzanz. Bestandskatalog Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe
Textilien

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 8.2

Finds of textiles from Early Byzantine Egypt represent the most extensive genre among the Byzantine artefacts of the Baden State Museum Karlsruhe. A total of 207 objects, including tunics, head coverings, upholstery material, blankets and curtains, give a vivid impression of the appearance of early Byzantine clothing and textile furnishings. In a detailed catalogue section and introductory chapters, particular attention is paid to the production technology and the determination of the function of the textiles. Apart from few exceptions, the objects were previously unpublished.

Falko Daim, Benjamin Fourlas, Katarina Horst, Vasiliki Tsamakda (Eds.)

Spätantike und Byzanz. Bestandskatalog Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe
Objekte aus Bein, Elfenbein, Glas, Keramik, Metall und Stein

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 8.1

The collection of the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe contains an extensive inventory of Late Antique and Byzantine objects, previously only partially accessible in publications. The artefacts and artworks are mainly small-scale objects, some of great scholarly value. They belong to both the sacral and secular spheres and convey a wide spectrum of everyday life as well as artistic and cultural production in the late Roman and Byzantine Empire. In the collection catalogue, the 268 objects made of bone, ivory, glass, ceramics, metal and stone, some bearing inscriptions, are thoroughly documented, interpreted and categorized in terms of their cultural history.

Vlastimil Drbal

Pilgerfahrt im spätantiken Nahen Osten (3./4. - 8. Jahrhundert)
Paganes, christliches, jüdisches und islamisches Pilgerwesen. Fragen der Kontinuitäten

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 7

The phenomenon of Late Antique pilgrimage in the Middle East is often equated with the emergence of Christian pilgrimage. But the Christian practice of pilgrimage was only one - albeit significant - part of the Middle Eastern pilgrimage tradition. It competed for importance with the older traditions of Jewish pilgrimage in Palestine and pagan pilgrimage in Pharaonic Egypt on the one hand, and with early Islamic pilgrimage, which was also particularly focussed on Jerusalem, on the other. These varied pilgrim traditions, which can be observed concurrently in a single location (especially in Jerusalem, but also in many smaller pilgrim centres) are the central focus of this investigation.

 

Rainer Schreg et al.

A Most Pleasant Scene and an Inexhaustible Resource Steps Towards a Byzantine Environmental History
Interdisciplinary Conference November 17th and 18th 2011 in Mainz

Henriette Baron, Falko Daim (Eds.)
Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 6

What do we know about the environments in which the Byzantine Empire unfolded in the eastern Mediterranean? How were they perceived and how did man and the environment mutually influence each other during the Byzantine millennium (AD 395-1453)? Which approaches have been tried up until now to understand these interactions? And what could a further environmental-historical research agenda look like?
These questions were the focus of an interdisciplinary conference that took place on 17 and 18 November 2011 in Mainz. The present conference volume brings together contributions from researchers who have approached these issues from very different perspectives. They focus on the explanatory power of traditional as well as »new« sources and the methods of Byzantine Studies and Byzantine archaeology for this hitherto little-explored sphere. In this way, we see how closely environmental history is interwoven with the classical topics of Byzantine research – be they of an economic, social or culture-historical nature.

Thomas Guttandin et al.

Schiffe und ihr Kontext
Darstellungen, Modelle, Bestandteile – von der Bronzezeit bis zum Ende des Byzantinischen Reiches

Heide Frielinghaus, Thomas Schmidts, Vasiliki Tsamakda (Eds.)
Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 5

Seafaring was extraordinary important in Antiquity and the Middle Ages for the economy and the wielding of power. It also provided contact between distant places. Ships were on the one hand decorated and ornamented and on the other hand they were frequently objects of depictions which could range from sketchy graffiti to three-dimensional reproductions. The contexts of the depictions encompass different areas, such as public and private representation as well as religion.
This Volume assembles 18 articles that have been presented on the occasion of an international workshop in 2013. Different groups of material ranging from the period of Bronze Age until the end of the Byzantine Empire were presented as well as the development of ship-building and navigation. The depictions of ships which have investigated scanty until now were the main target of the workshop.

Ewald Kislinger et al.

Die byzantinischen Häfen Konstantinopels

Falko Daim (Ed.)
Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 4

The fortunes of Byzantine Constantinople always have been intrinsically tied to the sea. Topographical, demographical and economical development of the city is reflected in the history of its harbours, which for the first time is concerned in its entirety in this volume.
Twelve studies regarding the harbours and landing places of the city at the Sea of Marmara and the Golden Horn – but as well regarding those in their European as in their Asian surroundings – are creating a synthesis of the current state of research by analysis of written, pictorial and archaeological sources.

John Haldon et al.

Hinter den Mauern und auf dem offenen Land
Leben im Byzantinischen Reich

Falko Daim, Jörg Drauschke (Eds.)
Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 3

  

Anastassios Ch. Antonaras

Arts, Crafts and Trades in Ancient and Byzantine Thessaloniki
Archaeological, Literary and Epigraphic Evidence

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 2

For the first time, the arts and crafts of Thessaloniki, once the second largest city in the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople, are examined thoroughly through archaeological remains, historical sources and epigraphic records.

More than 80 years of archaeological research and a life-time of personal research that covers 112 excavations, reveals at least 16 artisanal trades in detail. The book is organised chronologically with overviews of the political history and topography of Thessaloniki throughout its nineteen-centuries-long history. With an illustrated catalogue of each site and distribution maps, this work reveals relatively unknown aspects of life in Antiquity, the Early Christian period and Byzantium.

There was a new edition of Anastassios Ch. Antonaras: Arts, Crafts and Trades in Ancient and Byzantine Thessaloniki Archaeological, Literary and Epigraphic Evidence 2019

Anastassios Ch. Antonaras

Arts, Crafts and Trades in Ancient and Byzantine Thessaloniki
Archaeological, Literary and Epigraphic Evidence

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 2

For the first time, the arts and crafts of Thessaloniki, once the second largest city in the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople, are examined thoroughly through archaeological remains, historical sources and epigraphic records.

More than 80 years of archaeological research and a life-time of personal research that covers 112 excavations, reveals at least 16 artisanal trades in detail. The book is organised chronologically with overviews of the political history and topography of Thessaloniki throughout its nineteen-centuries-long history. With an illustrated catalogue of each site and distribution maps, this work reveals relatively unknown aspects of life in Antiquity, the Early Christian period and Byzantium.

Slightly revised new edition of Anastassios Ch. Antonaras: Arts, Crafts and Trades in Ancient and Byzantine Thessaloniki Archaeological, Literary and Epigraphic Evidence of 2016

Neslihan Asutay-Effenberger, Falko Daim (Eds.)

Der Doppeladler
Byzanz und die Seldschuken in Anatolien vom späten 11. bis zum 13. Jahrhundert

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 1

The Rum Seljuk Empire had emerged after the devastating Battle of Manzikert in 1071 in the previously Byzantine Anatolia. Until its dissolution in early 14th century it was the Byzantines’ most important neighbor on their Eastern border. The Rum Seljuk Empire combined Seljuk and Greek-Orthodox populations. Thus it was in close contact with Byzantium: Especially trade, the exchange of artists and marriages defined these relations. These social and political links as well as the ethnic and religious tolerance that shaped the coexistence of different groups in the Rum Seljuk Empire built the foundation for great art. At the same time we only know little about the Rum Seljuks and their interaction with the Byzantines so that the impression, that there had not been any cultural exchange between them, still prevails.

This conference volume presents the results of an interdisciplinary congress that took place October 1.-3, 2010 in the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz. The congress intended to discard this impression and initiate a discussion about problems concerning the Byzantine-Seljuk relations.