Miriam Noël Haidle, Liane Giemsch (Eds.)

Menschsein. Die Anfänge unserer Kultur
Begleitband zur Sonderausstellung. 5. Mai 2021 – 30. Januar 2022, Archäologisches Museum Frankfurt

Is it possible to define what it means to be human based on biological, social, ecological, or cultural factors? Is it something physical, something in the way we think, or in the way we behave? When we look at the long history of humankind, it becomes clear that we had to experience many different developmental stages throughout the millions of years of developmental history to become the multifaceted species that populates this Earth today.English Edition of: "Menschsein. Die Anfänge unserer Kultur"

Hans Ulrich Nuber, Heiko Steuer, Thomas Zotz (Eds.)

Der Südwesten im 8. Jahrhundert aus historischer und archäologischer Sicht

Archäologie und Geschichte – Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Vol. 13

On October 28 and 29, 1994, the Freiburg Research Network "Archaeology and History of the First Millennium in Southwest Germany" organized a colloquium at the University of Freiburg with the topic "The Southwest in the 8th Century from a Historical and Archaeological Perspective".
During the colloquium in 1994 such a period of upheaval was to be looked at more closely with the 8th century. This period, which cannot be strictly defined as a century, shows its transitional character in various respects, e.g. in political history with the striking end of the Alemannic duchy in the middle of the century and the integration of Alemannia into the Frankish Empire, in settlement archaeology with the flowing end of the row grave custom, the typical burial custom in the Merovingian Empire, and thus of the so-called row grave civilization. It was the intention of the colloquium to work out selective and long-term changes of this kind in the concentration on a region characterized by manifold historical traditions (Celts, Romans, Alemanni) as well as in the specific comparison with other historical landscapes and to approach the topic both in a general overview and in individual case studies.

Christiane Ruhmann

Die frühmittelalterliche Siedlung von Lengerich-Hohne, Kr. Steinfurt

Bodenaltertümer Westfalens, Vol. 39

On the southern edge of the Teutoburg Forest, a settlement from the 7th and 8th centuries was archaeologically investigated in Lengerich-Hohne in 1983/84. All in all, the picture of a rural settlement from the time before the incorporation of Westphalia into the Frankish Empire is presented. Although the settlement ends with Charlemagne's Saxon wars, no causal connection can be established either on the basis of the finds or the features.
The finds comprise metal objects, spindle whorls, weaving weights and stone tools such as whetstones and grinding stones. Most frequent, however, is pottery. With the help of ceramic chronology, stratigraphy and the results of house research, at least three successive settlement phases of the early Middle Ages could be identified. However, the assignment of individual buildings to courtyard groups remained uncertain. Especially worth mentioning is the ship-shaped main house 1, which is a typical representative of this building form characteristic for the 8th century in the East Dutch-Westphalian area.
This thesis was accepted as a dissertation at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster in 1998.

Martin Bentz, Michael Heinzelmann (Eds.)

Sessions 4–5, Single Contributions

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 54

Economic aspects permeate all areas of public and private life in ancient societies, whether in urban development, religion, art, housing, or in death. Research on ancient economies has long played a significant role in ancient history. Increasingly in the last decades, awareness has grown in archaeology that the material culture of ancient societies offers excellent opportunities for studying the structure, performance, and dynamics of ancient economic systems and economic processes. Therefore, the main objective of this congress was to understand economy as a central element of classical societies and to analyse its interaction with ecological, political, social, religious, and cultural backgrounds. The theme of the congress was addressed to all disciplines that deal with Greco-Roman civilization and their neighbouring cultures from the Aegean Bronze Age to the end of Late Antiquity.
In this collective volume, single contributions of sessions 4 and 5 deal with questions on the exploitation of resources such as metals and marble in the Roman imperial period and also on distribution, trade and networks in general in antiquity. Thematically, the studies range from trade and cultural contacts in the Iron Age and Archaic Mediterranean, Greek and Roman coinage, to Roman trade and transport systems.

Niels Herzig

Ciceros Paradoxa Stoicorum als interdisziplinäre Schullektüre für die Fächer Latein und Philosophie
Eine Untersuchung eines fächerübergreifenden Kompetenzgewinns

Acta Didactica – Bielefelder Beiträge zur Didaktik der Alten Sprachen in Schule und Universität, Vol. 4

Cicero's Paradoxa Stoicorum (46 B.C.) is a work that has long been forgotten in high school education. The Paradoxa aspire to popularize the scholarly language of Stoic philosophy with the help of rhetoric. This – from today's perspective – interdisciplinary character and the brevity of the work are reasons that allow students of our time an unusually open as well as easy access to Latin philosophical literature, which draws attention to the interdisciplinary value of teaching Latin in schools. This book focuses on concepts such as happiness, freedom and wealth, which are difficult to define, but – at the same time – determine everyday life. The book wants to show the benefits of the Paradoxa Stoicorum in particular as well as the benefit of teaching Latin across various disciplines in general.

Liane Giemsch, Miriam Noël Haidle (Eds.)

Being Human
The Beginnings of Our Culture. Accompanying volume to the special exhibition 5 May 2021 – 27 March 2022

Is it possible to define what it means to be human based on biological, social, ecological, or cultural factors? Is it something physical, something in the way we think, or in the way we behave? When we look at the long history of humankind, it becomes clear that we had to experience many different developmental stages throughout the millions of years of developmental history to become the multifaceted species that populates this Earth today.English Edition of: "Menschsein. Die Anfänge unserer Kultur"

Ronald Bockius and Piotr Łuczkiewicz

Kelten und Germanen im 2.-1. Jahrhundert vor Christus
Archäologische Bausteine zu einer historischen Frage

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 58

The aim of the study is to investigate the characteristics of the sepulchral representation of the equestrian and senatorial population groups in the defined area and period of investigation on the basis of archaeological-epigraphic evidence. The question pursued is whether there were binding forms of sepulchral representation within these two social groups and of what kind they were. The forms of representation recorded are also analysed and interpreted with regard to their contextual intention and / or intended statement. The material basis of the study is an extensive catalogue of newly edited or so far unpublished sepulchral monuments of both groups of persons.

Azzurra Scarci, Raimon Graells i Fabregat, Fausto Longo (Eds.)

Armi votive in Sicilia
Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi Siracusa Palazzolo Acreide 12-13 Novembre 2021

RGZM – Tagungen, Vol. 48

This volume collects the contributions presented at the conference »Armi votive in Sicilia«, held in Syracuse (Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi) and in Palazzolo Acreide (Town Hall) in November 2021.
This volume continues the project started with the conference »Armi votive in Magna Grecia« (Salerno-Paestum 2017), constituting a "second instalment" and taking up the same formula in combining an ambitious historical-archaeological analysis of the weapons offering in a diachronic and intercultural key.
Fifteen contributions that mark a turning point for the knowledge of the island, for a better understanding of the variability and complexity of this particular votive practice that underlines the role of war in antiquity. The volume also contains a reflection that goes beyond the island and synthesises a way of studying a complex repertoire (votive weapons and weapons in votive context) and indicates the challenges that research will have to face in the immediate future. In this collection the reader will find contributions from which to continue building the discourse on the dedication of weapons in Sicily and the ancient Mediterranean.

Michael Dodt, Sebastian Messal, Bente S. Majchczack, Andreas Kronz (Eds.)

Glas als Fernhandelsprodukt im frühen Mittelalter – Köln und der europäische Norden
Zwei Workshops im Rahmen des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms »Häfen von der Römischen Kaiserzeit bis zum Mittelalter«, ausgerichtet vom Römisch-Germanischen Museum zu Köln, 8.-10. November 2016 und dem Sydvestjyske Museer in Ribe / Dänemark, 20.-22. März 2018

RGZM – Tagungen, Vol. 46

The Six-Year Priority Programme (SPP) 1630 „Ports from the Roman Imperial Period to the Middle Ages“, funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), led to an interdisciplinary and networked cooperation between several project groups – Rhine, North Sea, Baltic Sea and inland ports – with research on early medieval glass finds at ports. External institutions and persons dedicated to research on the production and distribution of glass in the early Middle Ages were also included in the exchange taking place within the priority programme. The cooperation linked different regions: the Frankish Empire and the territories of the Frisians, Saxons, Vikings and Slavs.
Without the SPP, such networked and far-reaching research would not have been possible. The sub-project „The Early Medieval Port of Cologne – Production Site and Export Port for Glass“ with the glass workshops of the Merovingian and Carolingian periods recorded there, which were archaeologically and scientifically evaluated, forms the starting point for research on the early medieval economic history of glass in this volume.
The twelve contributions are based on lectures given at two conferences organised by the Römisch-Germanisches Museum of the City of Cologne (9-10 November 2016) and the Sydvestjyske Museum in Ribe, Denmark (20-22 March 2018).

Lars Kröger

Fähren an Main und Neckar
Eine archäologische und historisch-geographische Entwicklungsanalyse mittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Verkehrsinfrastruktur

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 160

Rivers such as the Main and Neckar in Germany are the heart of many cultural landscapes. They connect spaces and enable a variety of cultural and economic developments along their banks. At the same time, they form a barrier not easy to cross. Especially at navigable river sections, a reliable infrastructure needs to be provided, that does not disturb or only minimally interferes in the usability of the river. River crossings represent bottleneck situations in road systems. They possess a political and monetary value demanding for regulation and control. For prehistoric periods only fragmented information is accesseable, the medieval and early modern times show a profound complexity of circumstances. The solution to solve this issue is in most cases the use of ferries.
The present study analyses the available archaeological and written sources for the river systems of Main and Neckar in southern Germany. This provides a comprehensive picture of the development of river crossings. The archaeological analysis is based on the exceptional number of 121 logboat finds from the working area. In most cases, they have been parts of complex ferry constructions. This incomparable number allows the definition of local and temporal differences, sets them in contrast with finds from other European regions and gives the opportunity for reliable technical reconstructions.
To solve questions on ownership, legal basis and general use conditions of ferries and bridges published written sources from medieval and modern times on 241 river crossings in the area have been examined and evaluated. They represent a complex system of rights and duties concerning liege lords, ferrymen and ferry passengers. At the same time, it became obvious that fords in typical means did not play a role on navigable rivers other than expected. In this way, this study offers a profound glimpse into regional and supra-regional transportation systems in the heart of Middle Europe.

Nadin Burkhardt, Robinson Peter Krämer (Eds.)

Organizations of Production and Crafts in Pre-Roman Italy
Panel 3.7

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 11

While economic approaches are becoming generally more important and even mainstream topics, this is not necessarily the case for research into Pre-Roman Italy, defined as the area of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily and Sardinia during the Iron Age. Until recently, there was almost no research into Pre-Roman Italy focused on economic studies, and the existing research has been mostly dedicated to very specific contexts:
(1) specialization of crafts and production in the context of urbanization processes; (2) specific production areas, such as agriculture, metal processing, and salt production; (3) studies focusing on Greek Colonies and Greek Colonial encounters with indigenous populations; (4) analyses of consumption patterns, mainly in the case of Greek pottery consumption. Recent excavations and investigations devoted to the study of workshop structures, such as those at Gabii, Pithekoussai, Kroton, Lokroi Epizephyrioi, Naxos, Selinunt and Kyme / Cumae, have provided a range of new data that is stimulating a valuable and highly constructive discussion on the organization of production and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy. Against this background, four members of the study group ‘Etruscans and Italic Cultures’ from the ‘German Association of Archaeologists’ (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Etrusker und Italiker des DArV e.V.) formed a panel to discuss the economic aspects of Pre-Roman Italy on the basis of their ongoing research projects: all of these focus on the field of production and crafts. The aim is to contribute to an intensified debate on geographical, chronological and functional patterns in the organization of crafts and productions by discussing current case studies and methods.

Michael Heinzelmann, Martin Bentz (Eds.)

Sessions 2–3, Single Contributions

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 53

Economic aspects permeate all areas of public and private life in ancient societies, whether in urban development, religion, art, housing, or in death. Research on ancient economies has long played a significant role in ancient history. Increasingly in the last decades, awareness has grown in archaeology that the material culture of ancient societies offers excellent opportunities for studying the structure, performance, and dynamics of ancient economic systems and economic processes. Therefore, the main objective of this congress was to understand economy as a central element of classical societies and to analyse its interaction with ecological, political, social, religious, and cultural backgrounds. The theme of the congress was addressed to all disciplines that deal with Greco-Roman civilization and their neighbouring cultures from the Aegean Bronze Age to the end of Late Antiquity.
In this collective volume, single contributions of sessions 2 and 3 are dealing on the one hand with the investigation of natural environmental factors – climate and landscape – as impacts on the ancient economy, and on the other hand with the exploration of production system. Thematically, the spectrum ranges from the contextualisation of ancient handicrafts, to questions about the production of, for example, decorative metal objects, glass, portrait statues and bricks, to ancient architecture and the associated construction system. The temporal and topographical framework extends from Mycenaean and Archaic Greece, through Iron Age Southern Italy and Hellenistic-Roman Sicily as well as Macedonia, to Imperial Spain and Asia Minor.

Andreas Groß

Das byzantinische Erbe der Serben
Byzantinische Argumente und Narrative in der serbischen Nationalbewegung (1780-1868)

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 27

This study examines the significance of the Byzantine Orthodox heritage for the national movement of the Serbs in the 18th and 19th centuries. Based on contemporary historiographical works, newspaper articles, correspondence and laws, the monograph is dedicated to the use of the offer of surviving structures of the Byzantine Empire and its Church by Serbian nation-builders: The focus of the study is on ecclesiastical and secular actors from the narrow stratum of the Serbian educated and functional elite, who accessed and dealt with the Byzantine legacy to stage and legitimise rule, to consolidate their own identity and to justify certain political strategies.

Stefanie Archut, Sabine Schrenk (Eds.)

Variatio in Kunst und Handwerk
Modulare Arbeitsweisen in spätantiker und frühbyzantinischer Zeit

In the arts and crafts of the first millennium AD work was carried out in some extent with prefabrications and templates; one experimented with motifs. The workshops assembled individual parts "as if from a construction kit", sometimes according to a strict design, sometimes in a playful manner. The present contributions are the first to examine this "modular way of working" and the various aspects it influences in a comprehensive way and thus make evident: modular working is proving to be an essential motor for cultural development. These are the results of a project carried out mainly by students and doctoral candidates with funding from the VolkswagenStiftung in the research and teaching project of "Poolforschung" at the Department of Christian Archaeology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.

Wolfgang Börner, Hendrik Rohland, Christina Kral-Börner, Lina Karner (Eds.)

Artificial Intelligence
New Pathways Towards Cultural Heritage

Proceedings of the International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies, Vienna, Vol. 25

The 25th international Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies took place in 2020 in the city hall of Vienna under the headline “Artificial Intelligence – New Pathways Towards Cultural Heritage”.
The contributions deal with the application of computational approaches in all fields of cultural heritage, with a special emphasis on the utilisation of “Artificial Intelligence”. The topics include Remote Sensing, Data Acquisition and Modelling, and Methods for the analysis and presentation of digital data in archaeology and cultural heritage. The volume also contains Abstracts on the round table discussions held and the posters presented at the conference and a special session which was dedicated towards the 25th anniversary of the conference.

Silva Katherina Bruder

Man lebt, wie man wohnt.
Untersuchungen zur Wohnhausarchitektur Mittel- und Norditaliens vom ausgehenden 6. bis zum beginnenden 2. Jh. v. Chr.

Most research into Etruscan-Italic domestic architecture of the 5th to 2nd centuries BC concentrates on idealized floor plans, rigid typologies and pre-defined designations. This study breaks new ground in a holistic approach including floor plans, building techniques, design elements and recurrent activity zones. As a basis for the analysis, the author presents a catalogue of the available material according to uniform, transparent and strictly evidence-based criteria. Thus, by applying selected architectural research methods and using new, independent terms that are as neutral as possible, a picture of a differentiated and diverse residential landscape in central and northern Italy in the post-archaic period becomes visible. Architectural-sociological considerations round off the analysis.

Mark L. Lawall (Ed.)

Assemblages of Transport Amphoras: From Chronology to Economics and Society
Panel 6.6

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 36

Wherever they end up in the archaeological record and however they were used from initial potting to final discard, transport amphoras are artifacts of economic activity. That connection to the ancient economy, however, does not limit the range of archaeological contexts where amphoras played a significant role.
The papers in this volume examine a wide range of settings – from individual buildings to shipwrecked cargoes to broad geographic regions – where these jars are found. While find spots are oft en analyzed for whatever chronological evidence they might provide, contexts – broadly defined – can also contribute to more complex social and economic interpretations of the jars and the areas where they appear. Hence, in this volume, amphoras are studied in terms of supplies to sanctuaries and other public functions, artifacts of private commercial business, localized demand for different kinds of products, broad commercial trends shaped by Mediterranean geopolitics and environmental change. The authors cover finds from Archaic Didyma, Classical Corinth, the late Classical shipwreck near Mazotos (Cyprus), Hellenistic Rhodes and Ephesos, and the sites of Voura and Aigio on the north coast of the Peloponnese. These studies highlight the many different ways that inherently economic artifacts inform our understanding of ancient society.

Lisa Schunk

Understanding Middle Palaeolithic asymmetric stone tool design and use
Functional analysis and controlled experiments to assess Neanderthal technology

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 159

In the Late Middle Palaeolithic, the variability of Neanderthals’ lithic technologies in Central and Eastern Europe was complemented by a specific asymmetric tool type – the so called Keilmesser. Due to their morphological characteristics and interpretation as tools in purported long-term use, Keilmesser provide a unique archive for tracing late Neanderthal behavioural features. These may range from understanding tool design, production and dedication, to tool function, use and maintenance; along with aspects of technical innovations and transmission of skills and knowledge.
Three Keilmesser assemblages from the sites of Buhlen, Balver Höhle (both Germany) and La Grotte de Ramioul (Belgium) were analysed. Applying functional analysis combined with controlled experiments in a multidisciplinary approach, published interpretations were tested and evaluated.
The study presented in this book offers a blueprint to a more holistic approach by systematically employing different methods and scales of analysis. This comprehensive view on Keilmesser opens up room for discussions by offering a new perspective on this and, potentially, other specific tool types.

Stephanie Huysecom-Haxhi, Antonella Pautasso (Eds.)

«Craft Economy» and Terracotta Figurines. Approaching Systems of Production through Coroplastic Studies
Panel 3.14

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 16

Coroplastic studies have been developing in recent years due in particular to a different perception of terracotta figurines which are no longer considered as decorative objects but as privileged evidences of artisanal, socio-cultural and religious practices of the societies in which they were produced and used.

This volume is dedicated particularly to the craft practices and the processes and motivations that led to the production and the wide diffusion of terracotta figurines through the ancient world. The studies presented here, still in progress, are essentially based on a in-depth observation of the objects which are often the only remains excavated, as few workshops with all the tools and structures necessary for the manufacture of these artefacts have been recognized and studied so far. The object, whether moulds or figurines, is thus at the heart of coroplastic studies.

Different coroplastic sets, from various contexts in different geographical areas, are presented here, with the aim of comparing information on several problems concerning the manufacturing techniques, production processes and workshop faciès. Two main fields were explored: firstly the  technical expertise and characteristic handiwork of the craftsmen, and furthermore the reconstruction of activities within the workshops, whose functioning and faciès may vary from case to case. The contributions collected in this volume thus provide some interesting insights that may help future researches in this growing scientific discipline.

Petra Linscheid

Die frühbyzantinischen Textilien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 48

Textile finds from Egypt are our most important source for research into early Byzantine clothing and furnishing textiles. The Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum owns over 200 mostly fragmentary, but also numerous complete textiles from this period.
They are presented here as a scholarly catalogue of the collection with detailed introductory chapters and a detailed catalogue section. Particular attention is paid to the production technique and the function of the pieces. The knowledge of the appearance and use of the various tunics, cloaks, head coverings as well as blankets, upholstery fabrics, hangings and textile utensils make these objects archaeologically and historically relevant testimonies beyond textile studies.