Norbert Zimmermann, Thomas Fröhlich (Eds.)

The Economy of Death: New Research on Collective Burial Spaces in Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Roman Time
Panel 7.2

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 38

The contributions of this volume study economic aspects of Roman burial architectures for extended numbers of burials, such as columbaria, large hypogea, or catacombs, and try to form a picture of their owners and users. They discuss how far economic reasons played a leading role in the invention, the development and the use of these big burial monuments in Rome and how these buildings fulfilled the religious and social needs of their users, especially in the transitional period from the Roman to the Early Christian period. New studies in Roman funeral monuments could document interesting evidence for the dynamic process of the preparation and use of burial space. Especially in larger architectures for much more than a single family, the economic aspects of the  ownership and use of these installations is fascinating. Who were the planners of the projects, why were certain places and specific architectures chosen? How and at what time in the project were the burials of the owners and their families provided for? In what manner were further tombs sold or given to others? And which locations within the installation were they able to get? During the last decades, a series of general studies on Roman burials and burial customs were base on older documentation out of necessity, while new and more detailed analysis of single monuments often provide new and different insights of interpretation."

Walter Berschin, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer (Eds.)

Mission und Christianisierung am Hoch- und Oberrhein (6. - 8. Jahrhundert)

Archäologie und Geschichte – Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Vol. 10

The Christianization of the Germanic peoples of Western Europe began with the conversion of Clovis, king of the Franks, who, according to the report of the historian Gregory of Tours, vowed his conversion to the Christian Catholic faith in a battle against the Alemanni in 496/97. This event of "world historical significance" was recalled and honored in 1996/97, 1500 years after the legendary Battle of the Alemanni, in numerous events, exhibitions and publications. In March 1997, historians, theologians and archaeologists met in Bad Säckingen at the invitation of the city for a scientific colloquium to examine the missionary work and Christianization of the Alemanni, which probably began only decades after Clovis' baptism. The concentration on the area between the High and Upper Rhine and the interdisciplinary dialogue led to new insights and results, which are presented in this volume.

 

Markus C. Blaich

Werla 4: Curtem nostram nomine Werla – Architektur und Struktur einer ottonischen Königspfalz

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 138

The overall analysis of Werla combines the evaluation of the old excavations from 1934-1939 and 1957-1964 with targeted post-excavations and minimally invasive sondages.
Werla's staggered fortifications are a mark of military strength, and their monumental architecture showcases royal power. The outer castles are dominated by simple pit houses and storage buildings used for craft production, which show Werla to be an economic centre in the sense of elite economy.
The analysis of the small finds offers a different perspective than the architecture. It enables statements to be made about the founding period, the heyday and the abandonment of the palatinate. In addition, mounted, high-ranking visitors to the royal palace and their closer entourage and even the rarely present royal court can be identified.

In the middle 11th century Werla was abandoned, its palatine functions transferred to Goslar. In a supra-regional view, this can be related to the economic and political structural change that the East Saxon region underwent when the kingship passed from the Ottonians to the Salians.
As an outstanding example of Ottonian ruling architecture and with its integration into the wider surrounding countryside and its structuring as a separate imperial district, Werla at the same time stands for the changed role that the Harz region played in the political concept of the 10th and 11th centuries.

 

Raimon Graells i Fabregat (Ed.)

La colección de objetos protohistóricos de la Península Ibérica. 2
Armas y elementos para el gobierno del caballo

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 49.2

The collection of materials from the Iberian Peninsula held in the RGZM consists of ca. 150 objects, divided into two groups with particular characteristics and problems: the clothing ornaments (published in 2018 in the first volume of this catalogue, Kat. 49, 1) and the weapons, which we are concerned with here.
The second volume presents the arms and horse harnesses, an exhaustive analysis of the ensembles with which they were associated and, not least, the many ensembles and weaponry that throughout the 20th century were offered to the museum for acquisition but did not make it into its collection.
We have replicated part of the methodology applied in the first volume, which consisted of studying the materials by categories and types, enriching the study with 3D recreations in order to improve the clarity of the exposition and make the discussion of the complex elaborations more comprehensible. One difference with respect to the ornamentation dossier is that many of the weapons are recorded as part of assemblages, probably funerary. This information has not been underestimated, but it has not guided the initial approach of the study. We have been concerned to carry out an intensive study and comparison of each piece individually. Once this has been done, in a final chapter, we have assessed the coherence of each of the proposed sets. In this way, we have given a further twist to the aim of combining research and teaching with a concern for the recovery of heritage and knowledge of the rhythms and impact of the antiquarian trade.
The project to study the Hispanic collection of the RGZM, begun in Mainz in 2012 on the initiative of the institution’s management, now ends ten years later with the publication of all the metal objects and further consolidates, if possible, the interest and international dimension of this type of project. In short, a full stop to the research collaboration between the RGZM and the University of Alicante.

Noé David Michael

Settlement Patterns in the Northern Negev from the Hellenistic through the Early Islamic Periods

This research examines the long-term settlement history of the northern Negev, on the edge of the Roman Empire from origins prior to the empire in the Hellenistic period, through times of peak habitation in the Byzantine period, and on to the decline in population at the end of the first millennium CE. The ecological constraints of the semi-desert region are explored, as are issues of geographic variability and climatic change. The book draws on the great potential of Geographic Information Systems to synthesize the numerous large surveys undertaken in the region, calibrated chronologically by reference to excavations with greater chronological resolution.

Mechthild Schulze-Dörrlamm (Ed.)

Byzantinische Goldschmiedearbeiten im Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 42

The Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz owns a collection of Byzantine goldsmith's work, only a small part of which has been published so far and is therefore widely unknown. Since this collection of jewellery and insignia of rank contains not only individual finds but also remarkable ensembles and, in addition, some copies of valuable, unfortunately destroyed originals, it is now being made accessible to the general public for the first time. The objects are listed in 49 catalogue numbers. They come predominantly from the core areas of the Byzantine Empire, but also occasionally from regions beyond its borders and, moreover, from a long period of time stretching from the late 5th to the 14th/15th century.
Particularly noteworthy are two treasure finds, among them even a coin-dated one from Asia Minor or the Syro-Palestinian region, several necklaces made of elaborately openwork gold medallions, a gold bracelet ring from Syria also decorated with the finest opus interrasile and moreover with the most valuable precious stones, the only surviving decorative strip of a woman's crown cap, the richly chiselled pocket lid of a man of presumably royal rank, and an ensemble of Roman glass vessels, probably made in Constantinople in the 8th/9th century. They could be antiques from the imperial palace there.
In addition to a short catalogue with concise information on each object in the collection, the book contains an antiquarian appreciation of these goldsmith's works and the numismatic treatment of the coin-dated treasure find. In addition, one finds a detailed description of all applied goldsmithing techniques, which two experienced goldsmiths and restorers examined in the RGZM workshops. Overall, the catalogue is much more richly illustrated than comparable publications with new master photos of all the precious objects and countless detailed photos as well as drawings.

Frank Moseler

Brandstrukturen im späten Magdalénien
Betrieb, Nutzung und Funktion

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 151

The use of fire was one of the decisive milestones in the evolution of humans and their behaviour. Over the course of thousands of years, the element of fire became increasingly important. To this day, it plays a central role in human life - a role that goes far beyond craft and culinary use: fire increasingly became the centre of social life and ultimately forms the basis of our civilisation.
The multi-layered evaluation of Palaeolithic fire structures and their immediate surroundings provides important contributions to the understanding of the spatial and social behaviour of hunter-gatherer groups, not least in the context of the emergence of supra-regional sets of rules, which become archaeologically tangible especially in the late Upper Palaeolithic.
A comparative, diachronic evaluation of fire structures requires a standardised and generally applicable methodological apparatus. With the present work, a starting point was created, based on the partly excellently preserved hearth features from the Late Magdalenian. On this basis, it was possible to develop a comprehensive set of methods and at the same time to test them for their applicability and significance. In this way, a detailed picture of the use and significance of fire after the peak of the last cold period was created.

Alfons Zettler, Thomas Zotz (Eds.)

Die Burgen im mittelalterlichen Breisgau
I. Nördlicher Teil. Halbband A-K

Archäologie und Geschichte – Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Vol. 14

Of the once numerous medieval castles in the Markgräflerland and in the Breisgau, only a few survived the eventful and warlike centuries of the early modern period on the Upper Rhine. A small number of more or less well-preserved ruins are contrasted by a considerable number of vanished castles, of which only written records and field names still bear witness. The Castle Book, which was compiled in the Department of Regional History at the Historical Seminar of the University of Freiburg i. Br., contains a richly illustrated catalog of all the castles and castle sites of the Breisgau region in its medieval extension and thus offers for the first time a complete inventory of the high and late medieval castle landscape there. It will be published in four volumes, the first two parts covering the northern Breisgau, two more are planned for the southern Breisgau.

Tommaso Spinelli

The Diachronic Frequency of Latin Words: A Computational Dictionary
(A/AB–AZYMVS)

Digital Classics Books, Vol. 6.1

The Diachronic Frequency of Latin Words is an innovative resource that gives statistical information about the chronological development of the use of Latin words throughout the  history of the language, from the fourth century BCE to the early sixth century CE. Based on the computational analysis of the works of 309 Latin authors, fragmentary and anonymous texts, and over 520,000 epigraphs, this computational dictionary helps scholars to explore the usage of Latin words across different time periods and linguistic registers, offering statistical insights to support philological, linguistic, and literary analysis.

Béla Miklós Szőke

Die Karolingerzeit in Pannonien

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 145

This volume takes a detailed look at a period of the Carpathian Basin that has so far not been known at all, or only scarcely known at all: the eastern expansion of the Carolingian Empire - those scarcely 100 years that lie between the fall of the Avar Khaganate and the emergence of the Hungarian principality.
Pannonia, the new eastern province of the Carolingian Empire, comprised most of Transdanubia and the Sava-Drava interfluve, where smaller counties were established from the middle of the 9th century. The best known of these was the county in Lower Pannonia with its centre Mosaburg, which Priwina and his son Chezil developed into Zalavár-Vársziget (Castle Island) from the 840s. In Lower Pannonia, which belonged to the missionary district of the Salzburg archbishopric, up to 30 churches were built between 840 and 870, five of which are already considered archaeologically identified today. Constantine (Cyril) and his brother, Methodius, who was appointed Archbishop of Pannonia, were briefly active in Mosaburg. At the end of the 880s, a royal palace of Arnolf of Carinthia, the East Frankish king, stood here. He left Mosaburg to Duke Braslav in 896, who surrounded the settlement with a strong rampart construction.
Thanks to the excavations that have continued for over 70 years, we now have a reliable picture of the history of the settlement, the architectural and artistic monuments, the social hierarchy, the ethnic composition and the cultural connections of the Mosaburg county.

Raimon Graells, Alberto J. Lorrio and Fernando Quesada

Cascos hispano-calcídicos
Símbolo de las elites guerreras celtibéricas

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 46

The Hispano- Chalcidian helmet is a fully Hispanic type, datable to between the 4th and 2nd century BC and with a mainly Celtiberian concentration. However, this type has recently been identified following the looting and sale of a number of specimens, probably from Aranda de Moncayo. The name is explained by its shape, which is reminiscent of Chalcidian helmets and their Italic derivatives, but which takes important morpho-technological details from local Celtiberian production.
Although there is considerable variability among the 32 specimens identified so far, we can consider this to be the result of individualized production. But apart from these variations, the Hispano- Chalcidian group has an easily recognizable predetermined design: a shell with openings for the ears, long muzzle-guard, articulated cheeks (the rim of these pieces is reinforced by riveting a pseudo-hemispherical ribbon), the attachment of ribbons on the front and the systematic application of a complex decorative structure formed by feathers inserted in lateral appliqués and by the vertical lophos, supported between the fork of the cylindrical appendage which is documented to be fixed by three rivets on the upper part of the shell and the rings on the front and dorsal part of the shell.
The study presented here analyses the morphological and decorative characteristics in order to approach their production and the meaning of the weapons themselves: protective elements and, at the same time, vehicles with which to express different messages of power, military rank or influences acquired during the course of mercenary activity in southern Italy.

Markus Scholz

Grabbauten in den nördlichen Grenzprovinzen des Römischen Reiches zwischen Britannien und dem Schwarzen Meer, 1.-3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 103.2

Burial structures served not only to commemorate a person, but also to represent the family. The adoption or transformation of Roman status symbols by indigenous people in the provinces is therefore a measure of romanisation. The adaptation of Mediterranean forms can mean a break with indigenous traditions or - on the contrary - in certain selections be an instrument to communicate traditional values and patterns in a contemporary presentational framework.
The study shows where the models came from, which social groups conveyed them and which took them up and even developed them further. Monument topography and architectural types are taken into account as well as the media of epitaphs and sculpture. The differences between the Rhine and Danube provinces are revealing.

Markus Scholz

Grabbauten in den nördlichen Grenzprovinzen des Römischen Reiches zwischen Britannien und dem Schwarzen Meer, 1.-3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 103.1

Burial structures served not only to commemorate a person, but also to represent the family. The adoption or transformation of Roman status symbols by indigenous people in the provinces is therefore a measure of romanisation. The adaptation of Mediterranean forms can mean a break with indigenous traditions or - on the contrary - in certain selections be an instrument to communicate traditional values and patterns in a contemporary presentational framework.
The study shows where the models came from, which social groups conveyed them and which took them up and even developed them further. Monument topography and architectural types are taken into account as well as the media of epitaphs and sculpture. The differences between the Rhine and Danube provinces are revealing.

Thomas Schmidts, Martina Seifert (Eds.)

New Approaches to Seaborne Commerce in the Roman Empire
Panel 5.17

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 24

Seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire is characterised by a remarkable efficiency for the pre-modern world. From Egypt to Britain, trade connections can be proven on the basis of archaeological finds. The range of these activities includes the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and parts of the north-eastern Atlantic. Important reference points for the assessment of Roman merchant shipping are ports, ships and cargo remains. Due to the large number of known shipwrecks and ports, archaeology in particular can contribute to a better understanding of maritime trade.
The contributions address various aspects of the "seaborne commerce" with a broad methodological spectrum.  In addition to wreck finds, the relevance of inscriptions on amphorae and other cargo remains are considered as well as the formation of networks, the reconstruction of ship routes and the performance of ancient watercraft based on experiments.

Eurydice Kefalidou (Ed.)

The Riverlands of Aegean Thrace: Production, Consumption and Exploitation of the Natural and Cultural Landscapes | River Valleys and Regional Economies
Panel 2.4 | Panel 2.7

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 6

Rivers have always been vital supports for economies. They provided water for people and animals, irrigated the land, facilitated communication and trade through small vessels or rafts, aided industrial activities, formed rich hunting grounds for fishermen and hunters, and offered raw materials such as sand, gravel and placer deposits - including even gold. At the same time, the deltas and marshlands of rivers, created an inhospitable environment unsuitable for habitation, especially in periods of flood. Furthermore, rivers connected the sea and the littoral zone with the hinterland, and thus allowed the interaction between the populations which inhabited these areas, often locals and colonists/merchants. 
The papers address topics such as the reconfiguration of ancient river routes, the settlement and exploitation patterns that were formed around them, the boundaries of the chora of various cities, towns, villages and farmsteads, and the communication or the tensions between different groups that moved or expanded beyond their original habitation zone due to environmental and/or economic reasons.
Panels 2.4 and 2.7 explore multiple facets of some Central and Eastern Mediterranean riverlands. Panel 2.4 investigates Aegean Thrace, i.e. the Northeastern part of Greece and the European part of Turkey. Panel 2.7 looks at three river valleys in two different areas: Athens and Attica with the Ilissos River; and Northeastern Italy with the rivers that flow in the areas of Verona and Parma.

Salvatore De Vincenzo (Ed.)

Trade in Ancient Sardinia
Panel 5.4

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 29

The themes of this panel are the modes of trade in ancient Sardinia. What are the trade routes touching ancient Sardinia? Which areas and cities in Sardinia were most involved in these exchanges? Which products were exchanged and how was the island's production affected by trade? Which patterns are observable in importing and imitating foreign goods, which were carried to the island by traders? How do these aspects change over time, from Archaic times to Late Antiquity?
This analysis on ancient trade in Sardinia will be carried out predominantly based on pottery contexts. But of course, other trade goods like iron ore, of which Sardinia possessed great amounts, thereby shaping trade routes from the first millennium BC onwards, will be taken into account as well. The chronological phases in question range from Archaic times to Late Antiquity, comprising transactions of indigenous people, Carthaginians, and Greeks, with particular regard to the trade in the Roman era.

Mehmet Işikli (Ed.)

The Economic Structure of Eastern Anatolian Highland from Urartian Period to the End of Late Antiquity
Panel 2.6

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 7

      The Eastern Anatolian Highlands was one of the prominent sub-regions of the ancient Near East due to its very specific location. This region, which has rugged geographical features and harsh climate conditions, is situated between Northern Mesopotamia, the Southern Caucasus, Northwestern Iran and Central Anatolia, each of which were important cultural regions of the Near East. The Eastern Anatolian Highlands have played an important role in the economic networks and cultural relationships developed between the southern and northern regions through the ages. Despite its difficult geography and unfavourable climate conditions, the region hosted many cultures and societies through time on account of its strategic location and richness in natural resources and raw materials. The archaeological evidence shows that the initial periods of centralization and state formation in the region began with Urartu and continued through time. The most important factor in this regard is the fact that the region effectively functioned as a transit point on account of its strategic geographic position. Thereafter, the economic and political structures in this mountainous zone of the Near East are more easily observed. The economic structures of this marginal zone of the ancient Near East will be analysed from the Urartian period to the end of Late Antiquity in this session.

Christine Strube

As an Archaeologist in Syria / Als Archäologin in Syrien
Experiences and Events. 1971–1980 and 1997–2007 / Erfahrungen und Ereignisse. 1971–1980 und 1997–2007

The unusually well–preserved buildings of the ancient settlements in the North Syrian Limestone Massif were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2011. This inclusion could not prevent the destruction in numerous places after 2011. Hope remains that the rich cultural landscape can be conveyed in the future through the restauration and documentation of what is still preserved and its intensive connection with older documentations.

Raimon Graells, Alberto J. Lorrio, Pablo Camacho (Eds.)

La colección de objetos proto­históricos de la Península Ibérica
1: Broches de cinturón, placas y fíbulas

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 49.1

The collection of materials from the Iberian Peninsula held at the RGZM consists of around 200 objects, divided into two groups with particular characteristics and problems: clothing ornaments and weapons.
This first volume presents objects related to clothing and/or personal adornment that correspond to the first acquisitions of Hispanic pieces made by the RGZM at the beginning of the 20th century.
The materials are necessarily divided by categories and types, as in a traditional catalogue, but the concern for methodological changes and the renewal of explanatory paradigms in the study of Hispanic protohistory has forced the authors to take certain precautions that make this catalogue an experiment. The aim has been to compensate for the lack of contexts with an intensive study and discussion of the parallels of each piece, turning each chapter into brief monographic studies. This approach makes it possible to characterise the area of origin and chronology of each specimen in the collection. It is a demanding work that attempts to go beyond the main function of the catalogue (that of compiling pieces from the antiquities market) and enters into the arduous work of scientific and patrimonial recovery, presenting the data for discussion.
This project to study the Iberian collection of the RGZM began in Mainz in 2012 on the initiative of the institution's management, as a contribution to the comprehensive study and dissemination of its archaeological collection. The success of the publication of this first part is the result of the coordination carried out by the authors (researchers from the RGZM and the University of Alicante) and the collaboration of specialists from different Spanish institutions.

Anna-Katharina Rieger, Johanna Stöger (Eds.)

Cities, Resources and Religion – Economic Implications of Religion in Graeco-Roman Urban Environments
Panel 7.7

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 40

City and religion as subjects of archaeological research in the Mediterranean are often limited to sacred buildings within the spatial and social fabric of the city. However, specific urban factors such as the concentration of economic potential, control of financial resources, but also heterogeneous populations, marginalization, and power imbalances impact religious practices and their reflections in material culture.
The contributions in this volume discuss how economic characteristics of urbanity are reflected in institutional, medial, and performative expressions of religion(s) in cities of Italy and Asia Minor. These interactions are not only of interest for Greco-Roman antiquity, but are relevant in our modern world of globalized markets: With the concentration of economic power the potential for tensions and religious conflicts increases as rapidly as cities grow.