Stefanie Archut, Sabine Schrenk (Eds.)

Variatio in Kunst und Handwerk
Modulare Arbeitsweisen in spätantiker und frühbyzantinischer Zeit

In the arts and crafts of the first millennium AD work was carried out in some extent with prefabrications and templates; one experimented with motifs. The workshops assembled individual parts "as if from a construction kit", sometimes according to a strict design, sometimes in a playful manner. The present contributions are the first to examine this "modular way of working" and the various aspects it influences in a comprehensive way and thus make evident: modular working is proving to be an essential motor for cultural development. These are the results of a project carried out mainly by students and doctoral candidates with funding from the VolkswagenStiftung in the research and teaching project of "Poolforschung" at the Department of Christian Archaeology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.

Wolfgang Börner, Hendrik Rohland, Christina Kral-Börner, Lina Karner (Eds.)

Artificial Intelligence
New Pathways Towards Cultural Heritage

Proceedings of the International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies, Vienna, Vol. 25

The 25th international Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies took place in 2020 in the city hall of Vienna under the headline “Artificial Intelligence – New Pathways Towards Cultural Heritage”.
The contributions deal with the application of computational approaches in all fields of cultural heritage, with a special emphasis on the utilisation of “Artificial Intelligence”. The topics include Remote Sensing, Data Acquisition and Modelling, and Methods for the analysis and presentation of digital data in archaeology and cultural heritage. The volume also contains Abstracts on the round table discussions held and the posters presented at the conference and a special session which was dedicated towards the 25th anniversary of the conference.

Silva Katherina Bruder

Man lebt, wie man wohnt.
Untersuchungen zur Wohnhausarchitektur Mittel- und Norditaliens vom ausgehenden 6. bis zum beginnenden 2. Jh. v. Chr.

Most research into Etruscan-Italic domestic architecture of the 5th to 2nd centuries BC concentrates on idealized floor plans, rigid typologies and pre-defined designations. This study breaks new ground in a holistic approach including floor plans, building techniques, design elements and recurrent activity zones. As a basis for the analysis, the author presents a catalogue of the available material according to uniform, transparent and strictly evidence-based criteria. Thus, by applying selected architectural research methods and using new, independent terms that are as neutral as possible, a picture of a differentiated and diverse residential landscape in central and northern Italy in the post-archaic period becomes visible. Architectural-sociological considerations round off the analysis.

Mark L. Lawall (Ed.)

Assemblages of Transport Amphoras: From Chronology to Economics and Society
Panel 6.6

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 36

Wherever they end up in the archaeological record and however they were used from initial potting to final discard, transport amphoras are artifacts of economic activity. That connection to the ancient economy, however, does not limit the range of archaeological contexts where amphoras played a significant role.
The papers in this volume examine a wide range of settings – from individual buildings to shipwrecked cargoes to broad geographic regions – where these jars are found. While find spots are oft en analyzed for whatever chronological evidence they might provide, contexts – broadly defined – can also contribute to more complex social and economic interpretations of the jars and the areas where they appear. Hence, in this volume, amphoras are studied in terms of supplies to sanctuaries and other public functions, artifacts of private commercial business, localized demand for different kinds of products, broad commercial trends shaped by Mediterranean geopolitics and environmental change. The authors cover finds from Archaic Didyma, Classical Corinth, the late Classical shipwreck near Mazotos (Cyprus), Hellenistic Rhodes and Ephesos, and the sites of Voura and Aigio on the north coast of the Peloponnese. These studies highlight the many different ways that inherently economic artifacts inform our understanding of ancient society.

Lisa Schunk

Understanding Middle Palaeolithic asymmetric stone tool design and use
Functional analysis and controlled experiments to assess Neanderthal technology

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 159

In the Late Middle Palaeolithic, the variability of Neanderthals’ lithic technologies in Central and Eastern Europe was complemented by a specific asymmetric tool type – the so called Keilmesser. Due to their morphological characteristics and interpretation as tools in purported long-term use, Keilmesser provide a unique archive for tracing late Neanderthal behavioural features. These may range from understanding tool design, production and dedication, to tool function, use and maintenance; along with aspects of technical innovations and transmission of skills and knowledge.
Three Keilmesser assemblages from the sites of Buhlen, Balver Höhle (both Germany) and La Grotte de Ramioul (Belgium) were analysed. Applying functional analysis combined with controlled experiments in a multidisciplinary approach, published interpretations were tested and evaluated.
The study presented in this book offers a blueprint to a more holistic approach by systematically employing different methods and scales of analysis. This comprehensive view on Keilmesser opens up room for discussions by offering a new perspective on this and, potentially, other specific tool types.

Stephanie Huysecom-Haxhi, Antonella Pautasso (Eds.)

«Craft Economy» and Terracotta Figurines. Approaching Systems of Production through Coroplastic Studies
Panel 3.14

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 16

Coroplastic studies have been developing in recent years due in particular to a different perception of terracotta figurines which are no longer considered as decorative objects but as privileged evidences of artisanal, socio-cultural and religious practices of the societies in which they were produced and used.

This volume is dedicated particularly to the craft practices and the processes and motivations that led to the production and the wide diffusion of terracotta figurines through the ancient world. The studies presented here, still in progress, are essentially based on a in-depth observation of the objects which are often the only remains excavated, as few workshops with all the tools and structures necessary for the manufacture of these artefacts have been recognized and studied so far. The object, whether moulds or figurines, is thus at the heart of coroplastic studies.

Different coroplastic sets, from various contexts in different geographical areas, are presented here, with the aim of comparing information on several problems concerning the manufacturing techniques, production processes and workshop faciès. Two main fields were explored: firstly the  technical expertise and characteristic handiwork of the craftsmen, and furthermore the reconstruction of activities within the workshops, whose functioning and faciès may vary from case to case. The contributions collected in this volume thus provide some interesting insights that may help future researches in this growing scientific discipline.

Petra Linscheid

Die frühbyzantinischen Textilien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 48

Textile finds from Egypt are our most important source for research into early Byzantine clothing and furnishing textiles. The Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum owns over 200 mostly fragmentary, but also numerous complete textiles from this period.
They are presented here as a scholarly catalogue of the collection with detailed introductory chapters and a detailed catalogue section. Particular attention is paid to the production technique and the function of the pieces. The knowledge of the appearance and use of the various tunics, cloaks, head coverings as well as blankets, upholstery fabrics, hangings and textile utensils make these objects archaeologically and historically relevant testimonies beyond textile studies.

Alexandra Pesch

Die Kraft der Tiere
Völkerwanderungszeitliche Goldhalskragen und die Grundsätze germanischer Kunst

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 47

Tiny golden animal figures, mixed creatures, human and divine figures: Around 450 AD, a sophisticated pictorial language circulated in northern Europe. Deciphering this code allows deep insights into a past that is often mysterious.
As exquisite pieces of jewellery of the highest quality, the three Swedish gold neck collars are technically and iconographically the top products of their time. Although they were found as early as the 19th century and have fascinated researchers and laymen alike ever since, this is the first major scholarly monograph with outstanding illustrative material on these "imperial jewels". The focus is on questions concerning their manufacture, their bearers and their purpose. Above all, however, the significance of the many hundreds of figurative miniatures is explained, thus opening up access to the imaginary worlds of the Germanic peoples in pre-Christian times.

Sebastian Olschok

Der »Wirtschaftskomplex« im Deir Anba Hadra (Assuan / Ägypten)
Lebensmittelverarbeitung in einem oberägyptischen Kloster

Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident, Vol. 26

The Coptic monastery of Deir Anba Hadra is located opposite the southern Egyptian city of Aswan on the west bank of the Nile. This largest and best-preserved monastery in the region has been researched since 2013 by an interdisciplinary project within the framework of a DAI concession. The “economic complex” on the upper terrace was investigated in terms of construction history and archaeology as part of this project. In the evaluation, 16 construction phases were identified, which can be associated with different functions, and it is possible to identify this building complex as a site for food production. Bread, castor oil, wine and garum were produced here.
The building history research has shown that the core of the complex was originally built as an oratory for the monks´ hourly prayers. With the addition of several functional rooms, it was extensively redesigned after the 6th/7th century. This transformation made it possible to set up a bakery, the capacities of which were gradually expanded. With the construction of a crushing basin castor oil could be produced in the northern part of the building complex. Further north, a wine press was added, and two tanks were built in the immediate vicinity of the press. They were probably used to produce garum. In addition to the deliberate dismantling of individual walls, fireplaces and feeding troughs are evidence of the use of various walls even after the end of the use of Deir Anba Hadra as a monastery.
The production facilities identified at Deir Anba Hadra were compared with installations in the (late) ancient Mediterranean. Through these comparisons, not only technical details can be explained, but also production processes.

Jochen Sauer (Ed.)

Antike Konzepte neu denken bei Augustinus
Transformationen klassischer Texte in De civitate Dei und weiteren Werken

Acta Didactica – Bielefelder Beiträge zur Didaktik der Alten Sprachen in Schule und Universität, Vol. 5

Augustine’s writings and especially De civitate Dei are difficult to understand without knowing the texts, concepts and models of his predecessors. The authors of this volume focus primarily on the pagan authors Cicero, Ovid, Livius and Seneca and take a look at five concepts and theories: the Stoic theory of emotions, the Roman theory of the state, concepts of history, Roman ethics of exempla judgment and ancient friendship thinking. In addition to the scientific approach, the volume also offers didactic material for use in the upper grades of the Gymnasium. The volume is aimed equally at teachers and students from universities and schools.

Julian Hollaender

Der fließende Gott
Bilder von Flüssen und ihren Göttern in der römischen Kaiserzeit

This study focuses on images of river gods in the Roman Imperial period, especially in terms of their iconographic features, pictorial representation, aesthetic-semantic conception, and integration into broader narratives. It provides insight into the questions of identification, spaces of action and roles of river gods in different pictorial media, primarily through an analysis of narratives. In this way it fills the desideratum of a holistic, contextual view of river god representations.

In the case studies, particular attention is paid to the different ways of incorporating river gods into narrative scenes. The multitude of observed uses of these nature and place deities in pictorial contexts also reflects the wide array of associations connected to them.

Andrew W. Kandel, Miriam N. Haidle, Christian Sommer (Eds.)

Human Origins – Digital Future
An International Conference about the Future of Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Databases

This eBook presents the proceedings of an online conference entitled, “Human Origins – Digital Future” which took place from 27-31 July 2020. The main aim of the conference was to discuss integrative aspects and approaches for developing, using and securing large scientific databases in the future, specifically in the context of archaeological and paleoanthropological research. The conference focused on how databases with novel information technology can be used to gain new knowledge by linking, retrieving and analyzing archaeological, paleoanthropological, paleobiological and geographical information. In addition to addressing fundamental questions of digitalization and open science, the conference examined approaches using innovative methods. Given the digital nature of the conference, we designed the format of this publication to employ multimedia and interactive features. Therefore, this volume brings together the abstracts of the talks, each containing a link that allows the reader to view the video as presented at the conference. In addition, the volume closes with a round-table discussion that can be accessed through links to interviews about selected topics related to the future of databases.

Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Hessen, Claus Kropp, Lena Zoll (Eds.)

Draft Animals in the Past, Present and Future

For millennia, draft animals played a key role in the survival of many cultures. Even today, they still secure the livelihood of millions of people around the globe. Be it in transportation, agriculture, or forestry: draft animals can offer sustainable, eco-friendly and economically valuable ways of land use. Nevertheless, there are a lot of challenges, be it the pressure of high-profit markets or politics, in animal welfare, breeding and harnessing. Furthermore, the total number of draft animals is declining. In 2021, an international, virtual conference has addressed these challenges. Participants from around the globe discussed the history, preservation, education and future of draft animals. The conference proceedings represent a comprehensive result of these efforts.

Celia Krause

Vox ex imagine
Formen des Zusammenwirkens von Bild und ›sprechender‹ Beischrift in der antiken Flächenkunst

 

All written additions that are related to images are referred to as 'captions'. In ancient art, this mainly includes all kinds of names.
So-called 'speaking' captions are a special case, because they offer insight into the world of acoustics and enrich the figurative representations with the materially tangible dimension of spoken language. 'Speaking' captions not only bring images to life, but also ascribe new content to them, which could not have been conveyed in the same way without any inscription.
For the first time, this book describes the phenomenon of 'speaking' captions exclusively and in detail, taking different perspectives. Many concrete case studies illustrate how image and text can interact, especially on mosaics and wall paintings. The practical tasks of the voices in the pictures are successfully worked out, in part with the help of parallels on vases.

Additional information you find here: https://doi.org/10.11588/data/0QQVJK

Norbert Zimmermann, Thomas Fröhlich (Eds.)

The Economy of Death: New Research on Collective Burial Spaces in Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Roman Time
Panel 7.2

Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Vol. 38

The contributions of this volume study economic aspects of Roman burial architectures for extended numbers of burials, such as columbaria, large hypogea, or catacombs, and try to form a picture of their owners and users. They discuss how far economic reasons played a leading role in the invention, the development and the use of these big burial monuments in Rome and how these buildings fulfilled the religious and social needs of their users, especially in the transitional period from the Roman to the Early Christian period. New studies in Roman funeral monuments could document interesting evidence for the dynamic process of the preparation and use of burial space. Especially in larger architectures for much more than a single family, the economic aspects of the  ownership and use of these installations is fascinating. Who were the planners of the projects, why were certain places and specific architectures chosen? How and at what time in the project were the burials of the owners and their families provided for? In what manner were further tombs sold or given to others? And which locations within the installation were they able to get? During the last decades, a series of general studies on Roman burials and burial customs were base on older documentation out of necessity, while new and more detailed analysis of single monuments often provide new and different insights of interpretation."

Walter Berschin, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer (Eds.)

Mission und Christianisierung am Hoch- und Oberrhein (6. - 8. Jahrhundert)

Archäologie und Geschichte – Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Vol. 10

The Christianization of the Germanic peoples of Western Europe began with the conversion of Clovis, king of the Franks, who, according to the report of the historian Gregory of Tours, vowed his conversion to the Christian Catholic faith in a battle against the Alemanni in 496/97. This event of "world historical significance" was recalled and honored in 1996/97, 1500 years after the legendary Battle of the Alemanni, in numerous events, exhibitions and publications. In March 1997, historians, theologians and archaeologists met in Bad Säckingen at the invitation of the city for a scientific colloquium to examine the missionary work and Christianization of the Alemanni, which probably began only decades after Clovis' baptism. The concentration on the area between the High and Upper Rhine and the interdisciplinary dialogue led to new insights and results, which are presented in this volume.

 

Markus C. Blaich

Werla 4: Curtem nostram nomine Werla – Architektur und Struktur einer ottonischen Königspfalz

Monographien des RGZM, Vol. 138

The overall analysis of Werla combines the evaluation of the old excavations from 1934-1939 and 1957-1964 with targeted post-excavations and minimally invasive sondages.
Werla's staggered fortifications are a mark of military strength, and their monumental architecture showcases royal power. The outer castles are dominated by simple pit houses and storage buildings used for craft production, which show Werla to be an economic centre in the sense of elite economy.
The analysis of the small finds offers a different perspective than the architecture. It enables statements to be made about the founding period, the heyday and the abandonment of the palatinate. In addition, mounted, high-ranking visitors to the royal palace and their closer entourage and even the rarely present royal court can be identified.

In the middle 11th century Werla was abandoned, its palatine functions transferred to Goslar. In a supra-regional view, this can be related to the economic and political structural change that the East Saxon region underwent when the kingship passed from the Ottonians to the Salians.
As an outstanding example of Ottonian ruling architecture and with its integration into the wider surrounding countryside and its structuring as a separate imperial district, Werla at the same time stands for the changed role that the Harz region played in the political concept of the 10th and 11th centuries.

 

Raimon Graells i Fabregat (Ed.)

La colección de objetos protohistóricos de la Península Ibérica. 2
Armas y elementos para el gobierno del caballo

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 49.2

The collection of materials from the Iberian Peninsula held in the RGZM consists of ca. 150 objects, divided into two groups with particular characteristics and problems: the clothing ornaments (published in 2018 in the first volume of this catalogue, Kat. 49, 1) and the weapons, which we are concerned with here.
The second volume presents the arms and horse harnesses, an exhaustive analysis of the ensembles with which they were associated and, not least, the many ensembles and weaponry that throughout the 20th century were offered to the museum for acquisition but did not make it into its collection.
We have replicated part of the methodology applied in the first volume, which consisted of studying the materials by categories and types, enriching the study with 3D recreations in order to improve the clarity of the exposition and make the discussion of the complex elaborations more comprehensible. One difference with respect to the ornamentation dossier is that many of the weapons are recorded as part of assemblages, probably funerary. This information has not been underestimated, but it has not guided the initial approach of the study. We have been concerned to carry out an intensive study and comparison of each piece individually. Once this has been done, in a final chapter, we have assessed the coherence of each of the proposed sets. In this way, we have given a further twist to the aim of combining research and teaching with a concern for the recovery of heritage and knowledge of the rhythms and impact of the antiquarian trade.
The project to study the Hispanic collection of the RGZM, begun in Mainz in 2012 on the initiative of the institution’s management, now ends ten years later with the publication of all the metal objects and further consolidates, if possible, the interest and international dimension of this type of project. In short, a full stop to the research collaboration between the RGZM and the University of Alicante.

Noé David Michael

Settlement Patterns in the Northern Negev from the Hellenistic through the Early Islamic Periods

This research examines the long-term settlement history of the northern Negev, on the edge of the Roman Empire from origins prior to the empire in the Hellenistic period, through times of peak habitation in the Byzantine period, and on to the decline in population at the end of the first millennium CE. The ecological constraints of the semi-desert region are explored, as are issues of geographic variability and climatic change. The book draws on the great potential of Geographic Information Systems to synthesize the numerous large surveys undertaken in the region, calibrated chronologically by reference to excavations with greater chronological resolution.

Mechthild Schulze-Dörrlamm (Ed.)

Byzantinische Goldschmiedearbeiten im Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum

Kataloge Vor- und Frühgeschichtlicher Altertümer, Vol. 42

The Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz owns a collection of Byzantine goldsmith's work, only a small part of which has been published so far and is therefore widely unknown. Since this collection of jewellery and insignia of rank contains not only individual finds but also remarkable ensembles and, in addition, some copies of valuable, unfortunately destroyed originals, it is now being made accessible to the general public for the first time. The objects are listed in 49 catalogue numbers. They come predominantly from the core areas of the Byzantine Empire, but also occasionally from regions beyond its borders and, moreover, from a long period of time stretching from the late 5th to the 14th/15th century.
Particularly noteworthy are two treasure finds, among them even a coin-dated one from Asia Minor or the Syro-Palestinian region, several necklaces made of elaborately openwork gold medallions, a gold bracelet ring from Syria also decorated with the finest opus interrasile and moreover with the most valuable precious stones, the only surviving decorative strip of a woman's crown cap, the richly chiselled pocket lid of a man of presumably royal rank, and an ensemble of Roman glass vessels, probably made in Constantinople in the 8th/9th century. They could be antiques from the imperial palace there.
In addition to a short catalogue with concise information on each object in the collection, the book contains an antiquarian appreciation of these goldsmith's works and the numismatic treatment of the coin-dated treasure find. In addition, one finds a detailed description of all applied goldsmithing techniques, which two experienced goldsmiths and restorers examined in the RGZM workshops. Overall, the catalogue is much more richly illustrated than comparable publications with new master photos of all the precious objects and countless detailed photos as well as drawings.